Posts filed under ‘Infecciones de transmision sexual’

Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft-tissue infections.

Clin Infect Dis 2005 Nov 15; 41(10) :1373-406.


Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, et al.

Infectious Diseases Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boise, Idaho 83702, USA.

Soft-tissue infections are common, generally of mild to modest severity, and are easily treated with a variety of agents. An etiologic diagnosis of simple cellulitis is frequently difficult and generally unnecessary for patients with mild signs and symptoms of illness. Clinical assessment of the severity of infection is crucial, and several classification schemes and algorithms have been proposed to guide the clinician [1]. However, most clinical assessments have been developed from either retrospective studies or from an author’s own “clinical experience,” illustrating the need for prospective studies with defined measurements of severity coupled to management issues and outcomes….



Stevens et al. (2005; 41:1373–1406)

In a guideline published in the 15 November 2005 issue of the journal (Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, et al. Practice guidelines for the management of skin and soft-tissue infections. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41:1373–1406), an error appeared in the first sentence of the Note Added in Proof, which stated that dalbavancin had been …


March 10, 2014 at 8:52 pm

Chlamydia and male lower urinary tract diseases.

Korean J Urol. 2013 Feb;54(2):73-7.

Lee YS, Lee KS.

Department of Urology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon, Korea.


Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem.

However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such as chronic prostatitis and infertility.

This review summarizes C. trachomatis infection in the male genitourinary tract, including urethritis, epididymitis, orchitis, and its complications, and addresses the microbiology, epidemiology, screening, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.


February 20, 2014 at 12:43 pm

How can the treatment of bacterial vaginosis be improved to reduce the risk of preterm delivery?

Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2012 Sep;8(5):491-3.

Menard JP, Bretelle F.


November 30, 2013 at 2:18 pm

Mycoplasma genitalium: an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen.

Indian J Med Res. 2012 Dec;136(6):942-55.

Sethi S, Singh G, Samanta P, Sharma M.


Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.


Mycoplasma genitalium is a member of genital mycoplasmas, which is emerging as an important causative agent of sexually transmitted infections both in males and females. The advent of polymerase chain reaction and other molecular methods have made studies on M. genitalium more feasible, which is otherwise a difficult organism to isolate. Besides Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium is now an important and established cause of non gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men, more so in persistent and recurrent NGU. Multiple studies have also shown a positive association of M. genitalium with mucopurulent cervicitis and vaginal discharge in females as well. The evidences for M. genitalium pelvic inflammatory diseases and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that this organism has potential to cause ascending infection. Lack of clear association with M. genitalium has been reported for bacterial vaginosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diagnosis of M. genitalium infections is performed exclusively using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), owing to poor or slow growth of bacterium in culture. Although there are no guidelines available regarding treatment, macrolide group of antimicrobials appear to be more effective than tetracyclines. The present review provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of sexually transmitted infections due to M. genitalium.



November 28, 2013 at 3:45 pm

Current Chlamydia trachomatis Infection, A Major Cause of Infertility.

J Reprod Infertil. 2012 Oct;13(4):204-10.

Mania-Pramanik J, Kerkar S, Sonawane S, Mehta P, Salvi V.


Department of Health Research, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Mumbai, India.



In India, the impact of current Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) in reproductive health remains a neglected area of investigation. The present study evaluates if current Chlamydia infection is associated with any clinical complication that needs the attention of clinical investigators.


In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 896 women attending the Gynecology Out Patient for the detection of C. trachomatis infection. Polymerase chain reaction was used to diagnose current C. trachomatis infection and ELISA for past infections. Bacterial vaginosis, Candida and Trichomonas were screened. The results of symptomatic and asymptomatic groups were compared. The data was analyzed using Epi Info version 6 and “Z” test. A probability value of p≤0.05 was considered as significant..


Statistical analysis revealed significant association between current C. trachomatis infection with infertility when comparing infected fertile (18.6% vs. 9.4%, odds ratio: 2.19, p<0.0005) and uninfected infertile women (45.6% vs. 27.3%, odds ratio: 2.24, p<0.0001). Average infection rate was 12.1%, highest in women with infertility (18.6%) or with ectopic pregnancy (25%). Significant proportions of infected women with infertility (p<0.01) or with recent pregnancy (p<0.001) were asymptomatic. Follow up of infected women who became negative after treatment [28 women from infertility group and 9 women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA)] revealed live birth in 8 (21.6%) women within one year, 4 with infertility and 4 with RSA.


Study findings suggest association between current C. trachomatis infection and infertility. Absence of signs and symptoms associated with this infection highlights its diagnosis in women with a history of infertility and RSA for their better management, as revealed by live births with one year of follow up.


November 28, 2013 at 8:34 am

Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer

Clinical Microbiology Review January 2003 V.16 N.1 P.1-17

Eileen M. Burd*

Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan


Of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV), more than 30 infect the genital tract. The association between certain oncogenic (high-risk) strains of HPV and cervical cancer is well established. Although HPV is essential to the transformation of cervical epithelial cells, it is not sufficient, and a variety of cofactors and molecular events influence whether cervical cancer will develop. Early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions can prevent progression to cervical cancer. Identification of precancerous lesions has been primarily by cytologic screening of cervical cells. Cellular abnormalities, however, may be missed or may not be sufficiently distinct, and a portion of patients with borderline or mildly dyskaryotic cytomorphology will have higher-grade disease identified by subsequent colposcopy and biopsy. Sensitive and specific molecular techniques that detect HPV DNA and distinguish high-risk HPV types from low-risk HPV types have been introduced as an adjunct to cytology. Earlier detection of high-risk HPV types may improve triage, treatment, and follow-up in infected patients. Currently, the clearest role for HPV DNA testing is to improve diagnostic accuracy and limit unnecessary colposcopy in patients with borderline or mildly abnormal cytologic test results.


September 29, 2013 at 1:59 pm

Trichomonas vaginalis vaginitis in obstetrics and gynecology practice: new concepts and controversies.

Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2013 Jan;68(1):43-50.

Coleman JS, Gaydos CA, Witter F.


Division of Gynecologic Specialties, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.


Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Annually, 7.4 million new infections are estimated in the United States, which is greater than combined new cases of Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Serious adverse reproductive health outcomes including pregnancy complications, pelvic inflammatory disease, and an increased risk of HIV acquisition have been linked to TV infection. There are several sensitive and specific diagnostic tests available, including a newly approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) that utilizes the same instrumentation platform and clinical sample as Chlamydia and gonorrhea tests. In this article, we review TV pathogenicity, adverse reproductive health outcomes, detection, and treatment followed by clinical scenarios for which TV diagnosis may prove useful in obstetrics and gynecology practice.


September 29, 2013 at 1:43 pm

Combined norms for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV and syphillis infection.

Rev Chilena Infectol. 2013 Jun;30(3):259-302.

[Article in Spanish]

Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de la infección por VIH/SIDA; ITS División de Prevención y Control de Enfermedades Subsecretaría de Salud Pública Ministerio de Salud, Toriello PV, Menichetti CP, Buendía CB, Hupat EW, Larrañaga CL, Riquelme JM, Saldías CS, Guzmán CB, Schilcrot FF, Lizama AS, Cabello ES, Pérez SB, Díaz RB, Jiménez AR, Polanco AC, Valenzuela SS, Letelier MI, Illanes CG, López GP, Muñoz SV, Tagle MA, Cruciani RC, Molina LU, Opazo JC, Aillapán MV, Venegas AM, Marín MR, Galindo BG, Ramírez PR, Burton KC, Ochoa MG, Opazo MG, Pizarro JN, Camus FA, Nannig PM, Vargas AP, Peña JD, Campbell GB, Couratier CP.



September 25, 2013 at 8:10 am

Malignant syphilis in a patient infected by human immunodeficiency virus. Case report and literature review.

Rev Chilena Infectol. 2012 Dec;29(6):678-81.

[Article in Spanish]

Corti M, Solari R, De Carolis L, Figueiras O, Vittar N, Maronna E.


Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas Francisco J. Muñiz, Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Malignant syphilis is a rare form of secondary syphilis strongly associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). This clinical form of the disease is characterized by atypical cutaneous ulcerative and disseminated lesions and systemic compromise that can delay the final diagnosis. There are only few reports in the medical literature about malignant lues in HIV-infected patients. Malignant syphilis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in HIV-infected patients with fever and ulcerative skin lesions. Here we describe a man who developed clinical cutaneous and systemic manifestations pathologically confirmed as malignant syphilis and we performed a review of the literature.


September 25, 2013 at 8:08 am

Genital tract infection of women in Southern Orissa with special reference to pelvic inflammatory disease.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis. 2013 Jan;34(1):64-6.

Mohapatra S, Panda P, Parida B.


Department of Microbiology, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.


September 23, 2013 at 3:30 pm

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