Posts filed under ‘Infecciones de transmision sexual’

Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer

Clinical Microbiology Review January 2003 V.16 N.1 P.1-17

Eileen M. Burd*

Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan


Of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV), more than 30 infect the genital tract. The association between certain oncogenic (high-risk) strains of HPV and cervical cancer is well established. Although HPV is essential to the transformation of cervical epithelial cells, it is not sufficient, and a variety of cofactors and molecular events influence whether cervical cancer will develop. Early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions can prevent progression to cervical cancer. Identification of precancerous lesions has been primarily by cytologic screening of cervical cells. Cellular abnormalities, however, may be missed or may not be sufficiently distinct, and a portion of patients with borderline or mildly dyskaryotic cytomorphology will have higher-grade disease identified by subsequent colposcopy and biopsy. Sensitive and specific molecular techniques that detect HPV DNA and distinguish high-risk HPV types from low-risk HPV types have been introduced as an adjunct to cytology. Earlier detection of high-risk HPV types may improve triage, treatment, and follow-up in infected patients. Currently, the clearest role for HPV DNA testing is to improve diagnostic accuracy and limit unnecessary colposcopy in patients with borderline or mildly abnormal cytologic test results.


September 29, 2013 at 1:59 pm

Trichomonas vaginalis vaginitis in obstetrics and gynecology practice: new concepts and controversies.

Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2013 Jan;68(1):43-50.

Coleman JS, Gaydos CA, Witter F.


Division of Gynecologic Specialties, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.


Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Annually, 7.4 million new infections are estimated in the United States, which is greater than combined new cases of Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Serious adverse reproductive health outcomes including pregnancy complications, pelvic inflammatory disease, and an increased risk of HIV acquisition have been linked to TV infection. There are several sensitive and specific diagnostic tests available, including a newly approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) that utilizes the same instrumentation platform and clinical sample as Chlamydia and gonorrhea tests. In this article, we review TV pathogenicity, adverse reproductive health outcomes, detection, and treatment followed by clinical scenarios for which TV diagnosis may prove useful in obstetrics and gynecology practice.


September 29, 2013 at 1:43 pm

Combined norms for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV and syphillis infection.

Rev Chilena Infectol. 2013 Jun;30(3):259-302.

[Article in Spanish]

Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de la infección por VIH/SIDA; ITS División de Prevención y Control de Enfermedades Subsecretaría de Salud Pública Ministerio de Salud, Toriello PV, Menichetti CP, Buendía CB, Hupat EW, Larrañaga CL, Riquelme JM, Saldías CS, Guzmán CB, Schilcrot FF, Lizama AS, Cabello ES, Pérez SB, Díaz RB, Jiménez AR, Polanco AC, Valenzuela SS, Letelier MI, Illanes CG, López GP, Muñoz SV, Tagle MA, Cruciani RC, Molina LU, Opazo JC, Aillapán MV, Venegas AM, Marín MR, Galindo BG, Ramírez PR, Burton KC, Ochoa MG, Opazo MG, Pizarro JN, Camus FA, Nannig PM, Vargas AP, Peña JD, Campbell GB, Couratier CP.



September 25, 2013 at 8:10 am

Malignant syphilis in a patient infected by human immunodeficiency virus. Case report and literature review.

Rev Chilena Infectol. 2012 Dec;29(6):678-81.

[Article in Spanish]

Corti M, Solari R, De Carolis L, Figueiras O, Vittar N, Maronna E.


Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas Francisco J. Muñiz, Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Malignant syphilis is a rare form of secondary syphilis strongly associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). This clinical form of the disease is characterized by atypical cutaneous ulcerative and disseminated lesions and systemic compromise that can delay the final diagnosis. There are only few reports in the medical literature about malignant lues in HIV-infected patients. Malignant syphilis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in HIV-infected patients with fever and ulcerative skin lesions. Here we describe a man who developed clinical cutaneous and systemic manifestations pathologically confirmed as malignant syphilis and we performed a review of the literature.


September 25, 2013 at 8:08 am

Genital tract infection of women in Southern Orissa with special reference to pelvic inflammatory disease.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis. 2013 Jan;34(1):64-6.

Mohapatra S, Panda P, Parida B.


Department of Microbiology, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.


September 23, 2013 at 3:30 pm

Microbial and vaginal determinants influencing Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum genital colonization in a population of female patients.

Infez Med. 2013 Sep 1;21(3):201-6.

Leli C, Meucci M, Vento S, D’Alo F, Farinelli S, Perito S, Bistoni F, Mencacci A.


Microbiology Section, Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.


Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are associated with chorioamnionitis, preterm delivery and pelvic inflammatory disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factors of co-colonization by M. hominis in patients already colonized by U. urealyticum and compare demographic parameters, vaginal pH and microbiota of women colonized by U. urealyticum or M. hominis. A total of 452 patients positive for U. urealyticum or M. hominis were analysed, 421 (93.1%) of whom were positive for U. urealyticum and 31 (6.9%) for M. hominis. Patients positive for M. hominis compared to patients positive for U. urealyticum were more frequently colonized by Gardnerella vaginalis (71% vs 18.5%; p 0.0001), less frequently by lactobacilli (16.1% vs 61.5%; p 0.0001), and more frequently had a pH value higher than 4.5 (96.8% vs 57%; p 0.0001), all conditions associated to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Logistic regression analysis showed that only G. vaginalis colonization and pH higher than 4.5 were independently related to M. hominis colonization (respectively p 0.0001 and p 0.016). Thus, in women colonized by U. urealyticum, BV is an independent risk factor for M. hominis co-colonization.



September 23, 2013 at 3:28 pm

ICSI for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus-serodiscordant couples with infected male partner.

Hum Reprod. 2005 Aug;20(8):2242-6.

Mencaglia L, Falcone P, Lentini GM, Consigli S, Pisoni M, Lofiego V, Guidetti R, Piomboni P, De Leo V.


Centro di Chirurgia Ambulatoriale SrL, Via Toselle 178, 50144, Florence, Italy.



Assisted reproductive technology with semen washing can offer a significant reduction in risk of sexual and vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in serodiscordant couples with infected male partner.


Among couples coming to our centre for reproductive problems from January 2001 to December 2003, we selected 43 couples with seropositive male and seronegative female: 25 couples with HIV-seropositive males, 10 couples with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-seropositive males and eight couples with HCV-seropositive males. Sperm samples were washed and used for ICSI.


Seventy-eight cycles of ICSI were performed. The mean fertilization rate was 70.34 +/- 20.14% (mean +/- SD). A mean number of 3.55 +/- 1.11 (range: 1-5) embryos of good quality was transferred for each patient. We obtained 22 pregnancies (21 singletons and one twin), with a pregnancy rate per transfer of 28.2% and an implantation rate per transfer of 15.2%. The cumulative pregnancy rate was 51.2%. At follow-up, no seroconversion was detected in any patient.


Our data suggest that sperm wash and ICSI could be useful for reducing the risk of HIV and/or HCV transmission in serodiscordant couples with infected male wishing to have a child, irrespective of their fertility status.


August 7, 2013 at 2:33 pm

Interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection.

Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Dec;53 Suppl 3:S64-78.

Marrazzo JM, Cates W.


Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Seattle, WA 98104, USA.


The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatment Guidelines were last updated in 2006. To update the “Clinical Guide to Prevention Services” section of the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines, we reviewed the recent science with reference to interventions designed to prevent acquisition of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Major interval developments include (1) licensure and uptake of immunization against genital human papillomavirus, (2) validation of male circumcision as a potent prevention tool against acquisition of HIV and some other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), (3) failure of a promising HIV vaccine candidate to afford protection against HIV acquisition, (4) encouragement about the use of antiretroviral agents as preexposure prophylaxis to reduce risk of HIV and herpes simplex virus acquisition, (5) enhanced emphasis on expedited partner management and rescreening for persons infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, (6) recognition that behavioral interventions will be needed to address a new trend of sexually transmitted hepatitis C among men who have sex with men, and (7) the availability of a modified female condom. A range of preventive interventions is needed to reduce the risks of acquiring STI, including HIV infection, among sexually active people, and a flexible approach targeted to specific populations should integrate combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. These would ideally involve an array of prevention contexts, including (1) communications and practices among sexual partners, (2) transactions between individual clients and their healthcare providers, and (3) comprehensive population-level strategies for prioritizing prevention research, ensuring accurate outcome assessment, and formulating health policy.


August 7, 2013 at 2:31 pm

Immunotherapy of human papilloma virus induced disease.

Open Virol J. 2012;6:257-63.

van der Burg SH.


Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.


Immunotherapy is the generic name for treatment modalities aiming to reinforce the immune system against diseases in which the immune system plays a role. The design of an optimal immunotherapeutic treatment against chronic viruses and associated diseases requires a detailed understanding of the interactions between the target virus and its host, in order to define the specific strategies that may have the best chance to deliver success at each stage of disease. Recently, a first series of successes was reported for the immunotherapy of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-induced premalignant diseases but there is definitely room for improvement. Here I discuss a number of topics that in my opinion require more study as the answers to these questions allows us to better understand the underlying mechanisms of disease and as such to tailor treatment.


May 2, 2013 at 9:05 pm

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) – Questions & Answers – 2010 Treatment Guidelines

The questions contained on this webpage were submitted by participants during the “2010 STD Treatment Guidelines Webinar: An Overview by CDC and the NNPTC” which aired on January 13, 2011.

The answers were composed by STD clinical experts in the National Network of STD/HIV Prevention Training Centers (NNPTC) and the CDC, edited by the webinar panel members (Gail Bolan, MD; Edward (Ned) Hook III, MD; and Jeanne Marrazzo, MD, MPH) and then reviewed and edited by Kimberly Workowski, MD, the lead author of the 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines, to ensure that the answers were aligned with the current STD Treatment Guidelines.

This webinar is the first in a series of STD Treatment Guidelines webinars produced by the CDC and the NNPTC following the release of the 2010 Treatment Guidelines in December, 2010.

More than 150 questions were submitted following a webinar on the 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines. The questions and their answers are now available, including answers on the following topics.

Click on a category below to view questions and answers:

Children and Adolescents


Chlamydia/Gonorrhea Retesting

Expedited Partner Therapy

Genital Herpes


Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)


Mycoplasma genitalium

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Sexual Assault

STD Screening




March 9, 2013 at 11:57 am

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