Posts filed under ‘Infecciones de transmision sexual’
Korean J Urol. 2013 Feb;54(2):73-7.
Lee YS, Lee KS.
Department of Urology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon, Korea.
Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem.
However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such as chronic prostatitis and infertility.
This review summarizes C. trachomatis infection in the male genitourinary tract, including urethritis, epididymitis, orchitis, and its complications, and addresses the microbiology, epidemiology, screening, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2012 Sep;8(5):491-3.
Menard JP, Bretelle F.
Indian J Med Res. 2012 Dec;136(6):942-55.
Sethi S, Singh G, Samanta P, Sharma M.
Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.
Mycoplasma genitalium is a member of genital mycoplasmas, which is emerging as an important causative agent of sexually transmitted infections both in males and females. The advent of polymerase chain reaction and other molecular methods have made studies on M. genitalium more feasible, which is otherwise a difficult organism to isolate. Besides Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium is now an important and established cause of non gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men, more so in persistent and recurrent NGU. Multiple studies have also shown a positive association of M. genitalium with mucopurulent cervicitis and vaginal discharge in females as well. The evidences for M. genitalium pelvic inflammatory diseases and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that this organism has potential to cause ascending infection. Lack of clear association with M. genitalium has been reported for bacterial vaginosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diagnosis of M. genitalium infections is performed exclusively using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), owing to poor or slow growth of bacterium in culture. Although there are no guidelines available regarding treatment, macrolide group of antimicrobials appear to be more effective than tetracyclines. The present review provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of sexually transmitted infections due to M. genitalium.
J Reprod Infertil. 2012 Oct;13(4):204-10.
Mania-Pramanik J, Kerkar S, Sonawane S, Mehta P, Salvi V.
Department of Health Research, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Mumbai, India.
In India, the impact of current Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) in reproductive health remains a neglected area of investigation. The present study evaluates if current Chlamydia infection is associated with any clinical complication that needs the attention of clinical investigators.
In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 896 women attending the Gynecology Out Patient for the detection of C. trachomatis infection. Polymerase chain reaction was used to diagnose current C. trachomatis infection and ELISA for past infections. Bacterial vaginosis, Candida and Trichomonas were screened. The results of symptomatic and asymptomatic groups were compared. The data was analyzed using Epi Info version 6 and “Z” test. A probability value of p≤0.05 was considered as significant..
Statistical analysis revealed significant association between current C. trachomatis infection with infertility when comparing infected fertile (18.6% vs. 9.4%, odds ratio: 2.19, p<0.0005) and uninfected infertile women (45.6% vs. 27.3%, odds ratio: 2.24, p<0.0001). Average infection rate was 12.1%, highest in women with infertility (18.6%) or with ectopic pregnancy (25%). Significant proportions of infected women with infertility (p<0.01) or with recent pregnancy (p<0.001) were asymptomatic. Follow up of infected women who became negative after treatment [28 women from infertility group and 9 women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA)] revealed live birth in 8 (21.6%) women within one year, 4 with infertility and 4 with RSA.
Study findings suggest association between current C. trachomatis infection and infertility. Absence of signs and symptoms associated with this infection highlights its diagnosis in women with a history of infertility and RSA for their better management, as revealed by live births with one year of follow up.
Clinical Microbiology Review January 2003 V.16 N.1 P.1-17
Eileen M. Burd*
Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan
Of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV), more than 30 infect the genital tract. The association between certain oncogenic (high-risk) strains of HPV and cervical cancer is well established. Although HPV is essential to the transformation of cervical epithelial cells, it is not sufficient, and a variety of cofactors and molecular events influence whether cervical cancer will develop. Early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions can prevent progression to cervical cancer. Identification of precancerous lesions has been primarily by cytologic screening of cervical cells. Cellular abnormalities, however, may be missed or may not be sufficiently distinct, and a portion of patients with borderline or mildly dyskaryotic cytomorphology will have higher-grade disease identified by subsequent colposcopy and biopsy. Sensitive and specific molecular techniques that detect HPV DNA and distinguish high-risk HPV types from low-risk HPV types have been introduced as an adjunct to cytology. Earlier detection of high-risk HPV types may improve triage, treatment, and follow-up in infected patients. Currently, the clearest role for HPV DNA testing is to improve diagnostic accuracy and limit unnecessary colposcopy in patients with borderline or mildly abnormal cytologic test results.
Trichomonas vaginalis vaginitis in obstetrics and gynecology practice: new concepts and controversies.
Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2013 Jan;68(1):43-50.
Coleman JS, Gaydos CA, Witter F.
Division of Gynecologic Specialties, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. email@example.com
Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Annually, 7.4 million new infections are estimated in the United States, which is greater than combined new cases of Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Serious adverse reproductive health outcomes including pregnancy complications, pelvic inflammatory disease, and an increased risk of HIV acquisition have been linked to TV infection. There are several sensitive and specific diagnostic tests available, including a newly approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) that utilizes the same instrumentation platform and clinical sample as Chlamydia and gonorrhea tests. In this article, we review TV pathogenicity, adverse reproductive health outcomes, detection, and treatment followed by clinical scenarios for which TV diagnosis may prove useful in obstetrics and gynecology practice.
Genital tract infection of women in Southern Orissa with special reference to pelvic inflammatory disease.
Indian J Sex Transm Dis. 2013 Jan;34(1):64-6.
Mohapatra S, Panda P, Parida B.
Department of Microbiology, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.