Archive for August 4, 2008

Nonoxynol 9 Contraceptives: No Protection against HIV and Other STDs

Aug. 2008

http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/psn/transcript.cfm?show=78#6

The Food and Drug Administration wants to be sure that consumers know about new warnings on over-the-counter vaginal contraceptive products that contain the spermicide ingredient nonoxynol 9 (N9). These products include spermicidal gels, foams, films and inserts.

These warnings emphasize that nonoxynol 9 does not protect against infection from HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, or other sexually transmitted diseases. The warnings are intended to correct a mistaken impression that nonoxynol 9 protects against STD infection, including HIV/AIDS. In fact, using it may actually increase the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS from an infected partner, because nonoxynol 9 can irritate the vagina and rectum.

The new labeling makes several other points:

• Nonoxynol 9 contraceptive products are for vaginal use only, not rectal use. If you or your partner experience burning, itching, a rash or irritation of the vagina or penis, stop using it and talk to your doctor.

• You can use nonoxynol 9 for birth control if you are not at risk for getting HIV/AIDS i.e., you have sex with only one partner who is not infected with HIV and who has no other sexual partners or HIV risk factors.

• Don’t use nonoxynol 9 spermicides if you or your partner have HIV/AIDS, or if you don’t know whether you or your partner are infected, or if either of you has multiple sex partners or other HIV risk factors. Instead, use a condom that doesn’t contain nonoxynol 9. Remember, when used correctly every time you have sex, latex condoms can greatly reduce, but don’t eliminate the risk of catching or spreading HIV.

• And finally, talk to your doctor, pharmacist or other health care provider if you have questions about your options for birth control or about how to prevent infection with sexually transmitted diseases.
Additional Information:

FDA MedWatch Safety Alert. Nonoxynol 9 (N9) OTC Contraceptive Products. December 18, 2007.
http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/safety/2007/safety07.htm#Nonoxynol

August 4, 2008 at 1:11 pm Leave a comment

Yersinia enterocolitica infection in diarrheal patients

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases  Aug 2008  V.27  N.8  p.741 – 752

H. Zheng1, Y. Sun1, S. Lin1, Z. Mao1 and B. Jiang1

(1)  Institute of Digestive Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (Canton), 510515, China

Abstract  In this study, we hoped to provide valuable clinical information on yersiniosis for clinicians. Two thousand six hundred stool samples were collected from in- and outpatients with diarrhea, which were tested with both culture method and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In total, 188 positive samples were detected by RT-PCR (178) and culture method (160), while the incidence was about 7.23%. The detection rate of RT-PCR was significantly higher than culture method and a higher incidence in autumn-winter was also noticeably identified than in spring-summer. Infection sources mostly focused on unboiled foods (101) and pets (45), while clinical manifestation mainly presented as gastroenteritis (156), pseudoappendicitis (32), and extraintestinal complications (46). The morbidity of extraintestinal complications in adults was significantly higher than in children and it was the same for high-risk patients between adults over the age of 60 years (4.7%) and children under the age of 3 years (1.4%), whereas the constituent ratio of children versus adults with yersiniosis in different systems was not significant. Of 160 isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, the majority were susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, whereas only a small portion was susceptible to the first-generation cephalosporins and penicillins. During autumn-winter months, clinicians should pay more attention to clinical manifestation, early diagnosis, and treatment with susceptible antibiotics of yersiniosis and its complications, targeting high-risk patients.

abstract
http://www.springerlink.com/content/q7610630510238jw/

August 4, 2008 at 1:09 pm Leave a comment

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals in Tbilisi, the Republic of Georgia, are variants of the Brazilian clone

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases  Aug 2008  V.27  N.8  p.757 – 760

M. D. Bartels1 , A. Nanuashvili2, K. Boye1, S. M. Rohde1, N. Jashiashvili2, N. A. Faria3, M. Kereselidze4, S. Kharebava4 and H. Westh1

(1)  Department of Clinical Microbiology, Hvidovre Hospital, Kettegaard alle 30, 2650 Hvidovre, Denmark
(2)  Tbilisi State Medical University, Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia
(3)  Laboratório de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (ITQB/UNL), Oeiras, Portugal
(4)  Medical Center CITO, Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia

Abstract  The purpose of this study was to characterise methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from the Republic of Georgia, part of the former Soviet Union. Thirty-two non-duplicate MRSA isolates were collected in the period from May 2006 to February 2007. The patient data were analysed and the isolates were characterised by staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. Only two closely related spa types were found; 29 isolates were of spa type 459 and three were t030. The spa types belonged to sequence type (ST) 239, clonal complex (CC) 8. All isolates were multiresistant, PVL-negative and harboured SCCmec type IIIA. Based on the molecular findings and PFGE, the isolates most closely resembled the pandemic Brazilian clone (ST239-IIIA).

abstract
http://www.springerlink.com/content/j6257525q566760q/

August 4, 2008 at 1:08 pm Leave a comment

Bacterial resistance surveillance in China: a report from Mohnarin 2004–2005

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases  Aug 2008  V.27  N.8  p.697 – 708

Y. H. Xiao1 , J. Wang1, Y. Li1 and on behalf of the MOH National Antimicrobial Resistance Investigation Net

(1)  Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, First Hospital, Peking University, 38#, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100083, China

Abstract  The aim of this study was to establish a nationwide antimicrobial resistant surveillance network and obtain information on bacterial resistance in China. A total of 4075 clinical bacterial isolates were collected from 17 hospitals in 15 cities throughout China. Antibacterial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the standard agar dilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The results of the MICs revealed the following bacterial resistance characteristics. Oxacillin resistance was shown by 62.9% of Staphylococcus aureus and 82.89% of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Penicillin non-sensitivity was show by 40.7% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae strains, which included 10.5% penicillin-resistant strains and 30.2% penicillin-intermediate strains. Five strains of Enterococci were vancomycin-intermediate, but all Enterococci strains were sensitive to teicoplanin. All Staphylococci were susceptible to glycopeptides. A high resistance to macrolides was a predominant characteristic of the Gram-positive cocci. Enterobacteriaceae strains were clearly resistant to the third generation cephalosporins, with the exception of ceftazidime, and the resistance rates ranged from 20 to 70%. About 65% of the Escherichia coli strains were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Carbapenems remained highly active against all the target bacteria. Latamoxef, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/sulbactam and cefepime were all active against Enterobacteriaceae, which showed resistant rates of less than 10%. Imipenem resistance was found in 10.6% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 10.4% of Acinetobacter baumannii strains, most of which were multidrug resistant isolates. Combinations of ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor and fluoroquinolones also had potent antibacterial activity against non-fermenters. Amikacin was active against Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa. In conclusion, methicillin-resistant Staphylococci, penicillin-insensitive S. pneumoniae, macrolides-resistant Gram-positive cocci, cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, multidrug-resistant nonfermenters and fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli were revealed to be the most serious problems in terms of bacteria resistance in China. No glycopeptides-resistant Staphylococcus strains were isolated, and the appearance of glycopeptides-resistant Enterococci was seldom.

abstract
http://www.springerlink.com/content/658p621k7x215k35/

August 4, 2008 at 1:06 pm Leave a comment


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