Archive for September, 2008

Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin

Emerging Infectious Diseases  October 2008  V.14  N.10

Letter

Jacob Strahilevitz, Amos Adler, Gillian Smollan, Violeta Temper, Nathan Keller, and Colin Block

Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel (J. Strahilevitz, A. Adler, V. Temper, C. Block); and The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel (G. Smollan, N. Keller)

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/10/1667.htm

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/10/pdfs/1667.pdf

September 29, 2008 at 5:47 pm Leave a comment

Confirmed Mycoplasma pneumoniae Endocarditis

Emerging Infectious Diseases  October 2008  V.14  N.10

Letter
Juan Pablo Scapini,  Luis Pedro Flynn, Silvia Sciacaluga, Lorena Morales, and María Estela Cadario

Facultad de Ciencias Médicas Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina (J.P. Scapini); Sanatorio de Niños Rosario, Santa Fe, (L.P. Flynn; S. Sciacaluga, L. Morales); and Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas ANLIS “Dr Carlos Malbrán,” Buenos Aires, Argentina (M.E. Cadario)

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/10/1664.htm

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/10/pdfs/1664.pdf

September 29, 2008 at 5:46 pm Leave a comment

Prophylaxis after Exposure to Coxiella burnetii

Emerging Infectious Diseases  October 2008  V.14  N.10

Claire E. Moodie,  Herbert A. Thompson, Martin I. Meltzer, and David L. Swerdlow

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Abstract
Coxiella burnetii is a category B bioterrorism agent. We numerically evaluated the risks and benefits from postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) after an intentional release of C. burnetii to the general population, pregnant women, and other high-risk populations. For each group, we constructed a decision tree to estimate illness and deaths averted by use of PEP/100,000 population. We calculated the threshold points at which the number of PEP-related adverse events was equal to the cases averted. PEP was defined as doxycycline (100 mg 2×/day for 5 days), except for pregnant women, where we assumed a PEP of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160 mg/800 mg 2×/day) for the duration of the pregnancy. PEP would begin 8–12 days postexposure. On the basis of upper-bound probability estimates of PEP-related adverse events for doxycycline, we concluded that the risk for Q fever illness outweighs the risk for antimicrobial drug–related adverse events when the probability of C. burnetii exposure is >7% (pregnant women using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole = 16%).

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/10/1558.htm

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/10/pdfs/1558.pdf

September 29, 2008 at 5:44 pm Leave a comment

Invasive Group B Streptococcal Infections in Infants, France

Emerging Infectious Diseases  October 2008  V.14  N.10

Claire Poyart,  Hélène Réglier-Poupet, Asmaa Tazi, Annick Billoët, Nicolas Dmytruk, Philippe Bidet, Edouard Bingen, Josette Raymond, and Patrick Trieu-Cuot

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U567 Unité Mixte de Recherche Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 810, Paris, France (C. Poyart, H. Réglier-Poupet, A. Tazi); Centre National de Référence des Streptocoque, Paris (C. Poyart, H. Réglier-Poupet, A. Tazi, N. Dmytruk, P. Bidet, E. Bingen, J. Raymond, P. Trieu-Cuot); Groupe Hospitalier Cochin-Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris, (C. Poyart, H. Réglier-Poupet, A. Tazi, A. Billoët, J. Raymond); and Institut Pasteur, Paris (C. Poyart, P. Trieu-Cuot)

Abstract
Clinical features and molecular characterization of 109 group B streptococci causing neonatal invasive infections were determined over an 18-month period in France. Sixty-four percent of the strains were from late-onset infections, and 75% were capsular type III. The hypervirulent clone ST-17 was recovered in 80% of meningitis cases.

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/10/1647.htm

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/10/pdfs/1647.pdf

September 28, 2008 at 1:18 pm Leave a comment

Ceftibuten Resistance and Treatment Failure of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1 October 2008  V.52  N.10  p.3564-3567

Janice Y. C. Lo,1* K. M. Ho,2 Anna O. C. Leung,1 Felisa S. T. Tiu,1 Grand K. L. Tsang,1 Angus C. T. Lo,1 and John W. Tapsall3

Microbiology Division, Public Health Laboratory Services Branch,1 Social Hygiene Service, Public Health Services Branch, Centre for Health Protection, Department of Health, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region,2 WHO Collaborating Centre for STD, Microbiology Department, South Eastern Area Laboratory Services, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia3

Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections have been empirically treated in Hong Kong with a single oral 400-mg dose of ceftibuten since 1997. Following anecdotal reports of the treatment failure of gonorrhea with oral extended-spectrum cephalosporins, the current study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and molecular characteristics of isolates of N. gonorrhoeae among patients with putative treatment failure in a sexually transmitted disease clinic setting. Between October 2006 and August 2007, 44 isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were studied from patients identified clinically to have treatment failure with empirical ceftibuten. The ceftibuten MICs for three strains were found to have been 8 mg/liter. These strains were determined by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing to belong to sequence type 835 (ST835) or the closely related ST2469. The testing of an additional eight archived ST835 strains revealed similarly elevated ceftibuten MICs. The penA gene sequences of these 11 isolates all had the mosaic pattern previously described as pattern X. Of note is that the ceftriaxone susceptibility results of these strains all fell within the susceptible range. It is concluded that ceftibuten resistance may contribute to the empirical treatment failure of gonorrhea caused by strains harboring the mosaic penA gene, which confers reduced susceptibility to oral extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Screening for such resistance in the routine clinical laboratory may be undertaken by the disk diffusion test. The continued monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates is important to ensure that control and prevention strategies remain effective.

abstract 
http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/52/10/3564

September 28, 2008 at 1:16 pm Leave a comment

Rise and Persistence of Global M1T1 Clone of Streptococcus pyogenes

Emerging Infectious Diseases  October 2008  V.14  N.10

Ramy K. Aziz  and Malak Kotb

Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt (R.K. Aziz); VA Medical Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA (R.K. Aziz, M. Kotb); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis (M. Kotb); and University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA (M. Kotb)

Abstract
The resurgence of severe invasive group A streptococcal infections in the 1980s is a typical example of the reemergence of an infectious disease. We found that this resurgence is a consequence of the diversification of particular strains of the bacteria. Among these strains is a highly virulent subclone of serotype M1T1 that has exhibited unusual epidemiologic features and virulence, unlike all other streptococcal strains. This clonal strain, commonly isolated from both noninvasive and invasive infection cases, is most frequently associated with severe invasive diseases. Because of its unusual prevalence, global spread, and increased virulence, we investigated the unique features that likely confer its unusual properties. In doing so, we found that the increased virulence of this clonal strain can be attributed to its diversification through phage mobilization and its ability to sense and adapt to different host environments; accordingly, the fittest members of this diverse bacterial community are selected to survive and invade host tissue.

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/10/1511.htm

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/10/pdfs/1511.pdf

September 28, 2008 at 1:14 pm Leave a comment

Widespread Oseltamivir Resistance in Influenza A Viruses (H1N1), South Africa

Emerging Infectious Diseases  October 2008  V.14  N.10

Besselaar TG, Naidoo D, Buys A, Gregory V, McAnerney J, Manamela JM, et al.

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/11/pdfs/08-0958.pdf

September 28, 2008 at 1:12 pm Leave a comment

Penetration of Chlorhexidine into Human Skin

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1 October 2008  V.52  N.10  p.3633-3636

T. J. Karpanen,1* T. Worthington,1 B. R. Conway,1 A. C. Hilton,1 T. S. J. Elliott,2 and P. A. Lambert1

Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom,1 Selly Oak Hospital, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Raddlebarn Road, Selly Oak, Birmingham B29 6JD, United Kingdom2

This study evaluated a model of skin permeation to determine the depth of delivery of chlorhexidine into full-thickness excised human skin following topical application of 2% (wt/vol) aqueous chlorhexidine digluconate. Skin permeation studies were performed on full-thickness human skin using Franz diffusion cells with exposure to chlorhexidine for 2 min, 30 min, and 24 h. The concentration of chlorhexidine extracted from skin sections was determined to a depth of 1,500 µm following serial sectioning of the skin using a microtome and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Poor penetration of chlorhexidine into skin following 2-min and 30-min exposures to chlorhexidine was observed (0.157 ± 0.047 and 0.077 ± 0.015 µg/mg tissue within the top 100 µm), and levels of chlorhexidine were minimal at deeper skin depths (less than 0.002 µg/mg tissue below 300 µm). After 24 h of exposure, there was more chlorhexidine within the upper 100-µm sections (7.88 ± 1.37 µg/mg tissue); however, the levels remained low (less than 1 µg/mg tissue) at depths below 300 µm. There was no detectable penetration through the full-thickness skin. The model presented in this study can be used to assess the permeation of antiseptic agents through various layers of skin in vitro. Aqueous chlorhexidine demonstrated poor permeation into the deeper layers of the skin, which may restrict the efficacy of skin antisepsis with this agent. This study lays the foundation for further research in adopting alternative strategies for enhanced skin antisepsis in clinical practice.

abstract 
http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/52/10/3633

September 28, 2008 at 1:05 pm Leave a comment

The British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Resistance Surveillance Project 1999/2000-2006/7

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy  November 2008  V.62  N.suppl 2 

The British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Resistance Surveillance Project 1999/2000-2006/7

INDICE

Preface

The British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Resistance Surveillance Project: a successful collaborative model

Survey, laboratory and statistical methods for the BSAC Resistance Surveillance Programmes

Analysis, power and design of antimicrobial resistance surveillance studies, taking account of inter-centre variation and turnover

Non-susceptibility trends among Enterobacteriaceae from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland, 2001–06

Non-susceptibility trends among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland, 2001–06

Non-susceptibility trends among staphylococci from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland, 2001–06

Non-susceptibility trends among enterococci and non-pneumococcal streptococci from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland, 2001–06

Non-susceptibility trends and serotype distributions among Streptococcus pneumoniae from community-acquired respiratory tract infections and from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland, 1999 to 2007

Non-susceptibility trends among Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in the UK and Ireland, 1999–2007

Clinical implications of antimicrobial resistance for therapy

En este website del JAC tiene ACCESO LIBRE y se puede ver el abstract, el full-text y el PDF con solo hacer clic en uno de ellos.
http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/vol62/suppl_2/index.dtl?etoc

September 27, 2008 at 12:28 pm Leave a comment

New approaches to prevention of staphylococcal infection in surgery.

Current Opinion in ID August 2008  V.21  N.4  p.380-384

van Rijen, Miranda ML; Kluytmans, Jan AJW 

Abstract:
Purpose of review: The present review describes the literature about the prevention of Staphylococcus aureus infections in surgery, published from August 2006 to January 2008, and puts it into perspective.

Recent findings: To prevent Staphylococcus aureus infections after surgical procedures, three methods were described, that is, isolation precautions after methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening, vancomycin as an antibiotic prophylaxis in patients at risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and topical decolonization of carriage. Identified methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers can be treated with the appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Topical decolonization with chlorhexidine gluconate resulted in a reduced overall nosocomial infection rate, but no effect was found on the Staphylococcus aureus infection rate. Topical decolonization with mupirocin reduced the overall Staphylococcus aureus infection rate after surgery in Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers.

Summary: The treatment of proven carriers of Staphylococcus aureus with mupirocin is an effective method to prevent Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial infections after surgery. Cost-analysis studies show that this screen-and-treat approach is cost saving as long as the prevalence of mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is low. The effect of chlorhexidine gluconate on the Staphylococcus aureus infection rate in carriers should be determined in future studies.

abstract
http://www.co-infectiousdiseases.com/pt/re/coinfdis/abstract.00001432-200808000-00009.htm;jsessionid=LZBbCZY5Cc331VQK6cTzh4tCj5ydMKN4R1Kb1gyZ2gGvGnQp7Tg9!1177656273!181195629!8091!-1

September 27, 2008 at 12:25 pm Leave a comment

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