Archive for February 19, 2009

What have we learned about antimicrobial use and the risks for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea?

Journal of Antimicrobial and Chemotherapy February 2009 V.63 N.2 p.238-242

J. M. Blondeau*

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Royal University Hospital and Saskatoon Health Region, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Clostridium difficile: is recognized as a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and colitis. Antimicrobial agents have been repeatedly recognized as a causative risk for C. difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) and more recently fluoroquinolones have been particularly implicated. Unfortunately, not all reports of antimicrobial associations with CDAD have excluded variables other than antimicrobial use. Prevention of CDAD usually involves infection control interventions and antimicrobial restriction policies may not be fully substantiated by currently available data; however, antimicrobial drug restriction seems prudent in outbreak situations.

abstract

http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/63/2/238

PDF

http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/63/2/238

February 19, 2009 at 4:47 pm Leave a comment

Long-Term Control of HIV by CCR5 Delta32/Delta32 Stem-Cell Transplantation

N Engl Journal of Medicine February 12, 2009 V.360 N.7 p.692-698

Brief Report

Gero Hütter, M.D., Daniel Nowak, M.D., Maximilian Mossner, B.S., Susanne Ganepola, M.D., Arne Müßig, M.D., Kristina Allers, Ph.D., Thomas Schneider, M.D., Ph.D., Jörg Hofmann, Ph.D., Claudia Kücherer, M.D., Olga Blau, M.D., Igor W. Blau, M.D., Wolf K. Hofmann, M.D., and Eckhard Thiel, M.D.

Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the presence of a CD4 receptor and a chemokine receptor, principally chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). Homozygosity for a 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 allele provides resistance against HIV-1 acquisition. We transplanted stem cells from a donor who was homozygous for CCR5 delta32 in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia and HIV-1 infection. The patient remained without viral rebound 20 months after transplantation and discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. This outcome demonstrates the critical role CCR5 plays in maintaining HIV-1 infection.

abstract

http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/360/7/692?query=TOC

PDF

http://content.nejm.org/cgi/reprint/360/7/692.pdf

N Engl Journal of Medicine February 12, 2009 V.360 N.7 p.724-725

EDITORIAL

Not an HIV Cure, but Encouraging New Directions

Jay A. Levy, M.D.

The history of infectious diseases frequently includes people who were resistant to a pathogen. Such a phenomenon helped the Spanish, who had resistance to smallpox, in their conquest of South America, but not the Aztecs or the Incas, who had no resistance to smallpox and were decimated by the virus. Microbial resistance involves adaptive (acquired) immunity (e.g., the HLA subtype) or innate (natural) immunity resulting from the genetic makeup of the host…..

abstract

http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/short/360/7/724?query=TOC

PDF

http://content.nejm.org/cgi/reprint/360/7/724.pdf

February 19, 2009 at 4:43 pm Leave a comment

Increase in Coccidioidomycosis — California, 2000–2007

MMWR Weekly February 13, 2009 V.58 N.5 p.105-109

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5805a1.htm?s_cid=mm5805a1_e

February 19, 2009 at 4:40 pm Leave a comment


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