Archive for August, 2009

2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infections — Chicago, Illinois, April–July 2009

MMWR Weekly  August 28, 2009  V.58  N.33  p.913-918

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov:80/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5833a1.htm?s_cid=mm5833a1_e

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http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5833.pdf

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August 31, 2009 at 11:21 am Leave a comment

Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics of 3 Early Cases of Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection, People’s Republic of China, 2009

Emerging Infectious Diseases  Sept 2009  V.15  N.9

Cao Bin,1 Li Xingwang,1 Shu Yuelong, Jiang Nan, Chen Shijun, Xu Xiayuan, and Wang Chen,  for the National Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Clinical Investigation Group2

Author affiliations: Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China (C. Bin, W. Chen); Beijing Ditan Hospital, Beijing (L. Xingwang); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (S. Yuelong); Sichuan Province People’s Hospital, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China (J. Nan); Jinan Infectious Diseases Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China (C. Shijun); and Peking University, Beijing (X. Xiaoyuan)

Abstract

On May 7, 2009, a national network was organized in the People’s Republic of China for the surveillance, reporting, diagnosis, and treatment of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection (pandemic [H1N1] 2009). Persons with suspected cases are required to report to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Ministry of Health within 24 hours; the patient’s close contacts are then traced and placed in quarantine for 7 days. We report 3 confirmed early cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Two cases were imported from United States; the other was imported from Canada. The patients exhibited fever and signs and other symptoms that were indistinguishable from those of seasonal influenza. Serial virologic monitoring of pharyngeal swabs showed that they were negative for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus by real-time reverse transcription–PCR 4–6 days after onset of illness. One close contact whose sample tested positive for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus had no symptoms during quarantine. A national network is essential for controlling pandemic (H1N1) 2009.

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov:80/eid/content/15/9/1418.htm

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/9/pdfs/1418.pdf

August 31, 2009 at 11:20 am Leave a comment

Etiology of Encephalitis in Australia, 1990–2007

Emerging Infectious Diseases  Sept 2009  V.15  N.9

Clare Huppatz, David N. Durrheim,  Christopher Levi, Craig Dalton, David Williams, Mark S. Clements, and Paul M. Kelly

Author affiliations: Hunter New England Population Health, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia (C. Huppatz, D.N. Durrheim, C. Dalton); Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia (M.S. Clements, P.M. Kelly); and John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton, New South Wales, Australia (C. Levi, D. Williams)

Abstract

Encephalitis is a clinical syndrome commonly caused by emerging pathogens, which are not under surveillance in Australia. We reviewed rates of hospitalization for patients with encephalitis in Australia’s most populous state, New South Wales, from January 1990 through December 2007. Encephalitis was the primary discharge diagnosis for 5,926 hospital admissions; average annual hospitalization rate was 5.2/100,000 population. The most commonly identified pathogen was herpes simplex virus (n = 763, 12.9%). Toxoplasma encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis showed notable declines. The average annual encephalitis case-fatality rate (4.6%) and the proportion of patients hospitalized with encephalitis with no identified pathogen (69.8%, range 61.5%–78.7%) were stable during the study period. The nonnotifiable status of encephalitis in Australia and the high proportion of this disease with no known etiology may conceal emergence of novel pathogens. Unexplained encephalitis should be investigated, and encephalitis hospitalizations should be subject to statutory notification in Australia.

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov:80/eid/content/15/9/1359.htm

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/9/pdfs/1359.pdf

August 31, 2009 at 11:18 am Leave a comment

Trends in US Hospital Admissions for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

Emerging Infectious Diseases  Sept 2009  V.15  N.9

John Edelsberg, Charu Taneja, Marcus Zervos, Nadia Haque, Carol Moore, Katherine Reyes, James Spalding, Jenny Jiang, and Gerry Oster

Author affiliations: Policy Analysis Inc., Brookline, Massachusetts, USA (J. Edelsberg, C. Taneja, J. Jiang, G. Oster); Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, USA (M. Zervos, N. Haque, C. Moore, K. Reyes); and Astellas Pharma US, Inc., Deerfield, Illinois, USA (J. Spalding)

Abstract

Using data from the 2000–2004 US Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample, we found that total hospital admissions for skin and soft tissue infections increased by 29% during 2000–2004; admissions for pneumonia were largely unchanged. These results are consistent with recent reported increases in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov:80/eid/content/15/9/1516.htm

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/9/pdfs/1516.pdf

August 31, 2009 at 11:15 am Leave a comment

Use of Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine

MMWR Recommendations and Reports  August 28, 2009  V.58  N.RR-10  p.1-8

Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009

This report provides recommendations by CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of vaccine against infection with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus. Licensed vaccine is expected to be available by mid-October 2009. Highlights of these recommendations include 1) the identification of five general population target groups for initial focus of vaccination efforts (pregnant women, persons who live with or provide care for infants aged <6 months, health-care and emergency medical services personnel, children and young adults aged 6 months–24 years, and persons aged 25–64 years who have medical conditions that put them at higher risk for influenza-related complications), 2) establishment of a priority for a subset of persons within the initial target groups in the event that initial vaccine availability is unable to meet demand, and 3) guidance on use of vaccine in other adult population groups as vaccine availability increases.

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov:80/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5810a1.htm?s_cid=rr5810a1_e

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5810.pdf

August 28, 2009 at 10:27 am Leave a comment

Surveillance for the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus and Seasonal Influenza Viruses — New Zealand, 2009

MMWR Weekly  August 28, 2009  V.58  N.33  p.918-921

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov:80/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5833a2.htm?s_cid=mm5833a2_e

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5833.pdf

August 28, 2009 at 10:25 am Leave a comment

Oseltamivir-Resistant Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Two Immunosuppressed Patients – Seattle, Washington, 2009

MMWR  August 14, 2009  V.58  Dispatch  p.1-4

On August 6, 2009, CDC detected evidence of resistance to the antiviral medication oseltamivir by pyrosequencing viral RNA from clinical specimens of two immunosuppressed patients with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Seattle, Washington. This report summarizes the case histories and resulting investigations and highlights the importance of  1) close monitoring for antiviral drug resistance among immunosuppressed patients receiving treatment for novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection and 2) the implications for infection control.

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov:80/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm58d0814a1.htm?s_cid=mm58d0814a1_e

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm58d0814.pdf

August 27, 2009 at 4:11 pm Leave a comment

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