Archive for August, 2010

Yellow Fever Vaccine: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

MMWR RR  30 July 2010 V.59 N.RR-7 p.1-27

This report updates CDC’s recommendations for using yellow fever vaccine. Administration of vaccine is recommended for persons aged >9 months who are traveling to or living in areas of South America and Africa in which a risk exists for yellow fever virus (YFV) transmission. Because serious adverse events can occur following vaccine administration, health-care providers should vaccinate only persons who are at risk for exposure to YFV or who require proof of vaccination for country entry. To minimize the risk for serious adverse events, health-care providers should observe the contraindications, consider the precautions to vaccination before administering vaccine, and issue a medical waiver if indicated.

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5907a1.htm?s_cid=rr5907a1_e    

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5907.pdf

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August 29, 2010 at 11:49 pm Leave a comment

Hantavirus Infections in Humans and Animals, China

EID August 2010  V.16  N.8 p.1195-1203

Yong-Zhen Zhang,  Yang Zou, Zhen F. Fu, and Alexander Plyusnin

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China (Y.-Z. Zhang, Y. Zou); University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA (Z.F. Fu); and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (A. Plyusnin)

Abstract

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a serious public health problem in the People’s Republic of China. Although 7 sero/genotypes of hantaviruses have been found in rodents, only Hantaan virus (carried by Apodemus agrarius mice) and Seoul virus (carried by Rattus norvegicus rats) reportedly cause disease in humans. During 1950–2007, a total of 1,557,622 cases of HFRS in humans and 46,427 deaths (3%) were reported in China. HFRS has been reported in 29 of 31 provinces in China. After implementation of comprehensive preventive measures, including vaccination, in the past decade in China, incidence of HFRS has dramatically decreased; only 11,248 HFRS cases were reported in 2007. Mortality rates also declined from the highest level of 14.2% in 1969 to ≈1% during 1995–2007. However, the numbers of HFRS cases and deaths in China remain the highest in the world.

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/8/1195.htm

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/8/pdfs/1195.pdf

August 29, 2010 at 11:48 pm Leave a comment

Clostridium difficile Bacteremia, Taiwan

EID August 2010  V.16  N.8 p.1204-1210

Nan-Yao Lee, Yu-Tsung Huang, Po-Ren Hsueh,2 and Wen-Chien Ko2

National Cheng Kung University Hospital and Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan (N.-Y. Lee, W.-C. Ko); and National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (Y.-T. Huang, P.-R. Hsueh)

Abstract

To determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with Clostridium difficile bacteremia (CDB), we identified 12 patients with CDB in 2 medical centers in Taiwan; all had underlying systemic diseases. Five had gastrointestinal diseases or conditions, including pseudomembranous colitis (2 patients); 4 recalled diarrhea, but only 5 had recent exposure to antimicrobial drugs. Ten available isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Five isolates had C. difficile toxin A or B. Of 5 patients who died, 3 died of CDB. Of 8 patients treated with metronidazole or vancomycin, only 1 died, and all 4 patients treated with other drugs died (12.5% vs. 100%; p = 0.01). C. difficile bacteremia, although uncommon, is thus associated with substaintial illness and death rates.

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/8/1204.htm

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http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/8/pdfs/1204.pdf

August 29, 2010 at 11:39 pm Leave a comment

Responses to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Australia

EID August 2010  V.16  N.8 p.1211-1216

Keith Eastwood,  David N. Durrheim, Michelle Butler, and Alison Jon

Hunter New England Health, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia (K. Eastwood, D.N. Durrheim, M. Butler); University of Newcastle, Newcastle (D.N. Durrheim); and University of Western Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (A. Jones)

Abstract

In 2007, adults in Australia were interviewed about their willingness to comply with potential health interventions during a hypothetical influenza outbreak. After the first wave of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Australia, many of the same respondents were interviewed about behavior and protection measures they actually adopted. Of the original 1,155 respondents, follow-up interviews were conducted for 830 (71.9%). Overall, 20.4% of respondents in 2009 had recently experienced influenza-like illness, 77.7% perceived pandemic (H1N1) 2009 to be mild, and 77.8% reported low anxiety. Only 14.5% could correctly answer 4 questions about influenza virus transmission, symptoms, and infection control. Some reported increasing handwashing (46.6%) and covering coughs and sneezes (27.8%) to reduce transmission. Compared with intentions reported in 2007, stated compliance with quarantine or isolation measures in 2009 remained high. However, only respondents who perceived pandemic (H1N1) 2009 as serious or who had attained higher educational levels expressed intention to comply with social distancing measures.

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/8/1211.htm   

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/8/pdfs/1211.pdf

August 29, 2010 at 11:37 pm Leave a comment

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance for Severe Illness and Response, New York, New York, USA, April–July 2009

EID August 2010  V.16  N.8 p.1259-1264

Sharon Balter, Leena S. Gupta, Sungwoo Lim, Jie Fu, and Sharon E. Perlman , for the New York City 2009 H1N1 Flu Investigation Team New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, New York, USA

Abstract

On April 23, 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) was notified of a school outbreak of respiratory illness; 2 days later the infection was identified as pandemic (H1N1) 2009. This was the first major outbreak of the illness in the United States. To guide decisions on the public health response, the DOHMH used active hospital-based surveillance and then enhanced passive reporting to collect data on demographics, risk conditions, and clinical severity. This surveillance identified 996 hospitalized patients with confirmed or probable pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection from April 24 to July 7; fifty percent lived in high-poverty neighborhoods. Nearly half were <18 years of age. Surveillance data were critical in guiding the DOHMH response. The DOHMH experience during this outbreak illustrates the need for the capacity to rapidly expand and modify surveillance to adapt to changing conditions.

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/8/1259.htm  

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/8/pdfs/1259.pdf

August 29, 2010 at 11:36 pm Leave a comment

Quarantine Methods and Prevention of Secondary Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009

EID August 2010  V.16  N.8 p.1300-1302

Chen-Yi Chu,1 Cheng-Yi Li,1 Hui Zhang,1 Yong Wang, Dong-Hui Huo, Liang Wen, Zhi-Tao Yin, Feng Li, and Hong-Bin Song People’s Liberation Army Institute of Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

Abstract

During the 2009 influenza (H1N1) pandemic, some countries used quarantine for containment or mitigation. Of 152 quarantined university students we studied, risk for illness was higher for students quarantined in a room with a person with a confirmed case; we found no difference between students quarantined in double or single rooms.

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/8/1300.htm

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/8/pdfs/1300.pdf

August 29, 2010 at 11:35 pm Leave a comment

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Down Syndrome Patients

EID August 2010  V.16  N.8 p.1312-1314

Rogelio Pérez-Padilla , Rosario Fernández, Cecilia García-Sancho, Francisco Franco-Marina, Octavio Aburto, Hugo López-Gatell, and Ietza Bojórquez

National Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Mexico City, Mexico (R. Pérez-Padilla, R. Fernández, C. García-Sancho, F. Franco-Marina, O. Aburto); and Secretariat of Health, Mexico City (H. López-Gatell, I. Bojórquez)

Abstract

We compared prevalence of hospitalization, endotracheal intubation, and death among case-patients with and without Down syndrome during pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Mexico. Likelihoods of hospitalization, intubation, and death were 16-fold, 8-fold, and 335-fold greater, respectively, for patients with Down syndrome. Vaccination and early antiviral drug treatment are recommended during such epidemics.

Full Text

http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/8/1312.htm

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/8/pdfs/1312.pdf

August 29, 2010 at 11:33 pm Leave a comment

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