Archive for March, 2011

Incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus infection in men (HIM): a cohort study.

Lancet. 2011 Mar 12 V.377  p.932

Giuliano AR, Lee JH, Fulp W, Villa LL, Lazcano E, Papenfuss MR, Abrahamsen M, Salmeron J, Anic GM, Rollison DE, Smith D.

H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause genital warts and cancers in men. The natural history of HPV infection in men is largely unknown, and that information is needed to inform prevention strategies. The goal in this study was to estimate incidence and clearance of type-specific genital HPV infection in men, and to assess the associated factors.

METHODS

Men (aged 18-70 years), residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA, who were HIV negative and reported no history of cancer were recruited from the general population, universities, and organised health-care systems. They were assessed every 6 months for a median follow-up of 27·5 months (18·0-31·2). Specimens from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were obtained for the assessment of the status of HPV genotypes.

FINDINGS

In 1159 men, the incidence of a new genital HPV infection was 38·4 per 1000 person months (95% CI 34·3-43·0). Oncogenic HPV infection was significantly associated with having a high number of lifetime female sexual partners (hazard ratio 2·40, 1·38-4·18, for at least 50 partners vs not more than one partner), and number of male anal-sexual partners (2·57, 1·46-4·49, for at least three male partners vs no recent partners). Median duration of HPV infection was 7·52 months (6·80-8·61) for any HPV and 12·19 months (7·16-18·17) for HPV 16. Clearance of oncogenic HPV infection decreased in men with a high number of lifetime female partners (0·49, 0·31-0·76, for at least 50 female partners vs not more than one partner), and in men in Brazil (0·71, 0·56-0·91) and Mexico (0·73, 0·57-0·94) compared with the USA. Clearance of oncogenic HPV was more rapid with increasing age (1·02, 1·01-1·03).

INTERPRETATION

The data from this study are useful for the development of realistic cost-effectiveness models for male HPV vaccination internationally.

FUNDING

National Cancer Institute.

abstract

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Incidence%20and%20clearance%20of%20genital%20human%20papillomavirus%20infection%20in%20men%20(HIM)%3A%20A%20cohort%20study.%20

 

Lancet. 2011 Mar 12 V.377  p.881

Genital infection with HPV in men: research into practice.

Monsonego J.

Department of Colposcopy, Institute of the Cervix, 75017 Paris, France.

abstract

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21367447

March 22, 2011 at 5:36 pm Leave a comment

The influence of abacavir and other antiretroviral agents on virological response to HCV therapy among antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected patients.

Antivir Ther. 2010  V.15 N.1  p.91-9.

Amorosa VK, Slim J, Mounzer K, Bruno C, Hoffman-Terry M, Dorey-Stein Z, Ferrara T, Kostman JR, Lo Re V 3rd.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

It remains unclear if certain antiretroviral medications, particularly abacavir, compromise response to HCV therapy. Such data could inform the selection of appropriate antiretrovirals in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to determine if use of abacavir, as well as other antiretrovirals, was associated with reduced response to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin.

METHODS

A cohort study was performed among antiretroviral-treated HIV/HCV-coinfected patients initiating PEG-IFN plus ribavirin between January 2001 and June 2007 at six sites in the United States. Abacavir and other antiretrovirals represented exposures of interest. Study outcomes included an early virological response (> or =2 log IU/ml decrease in HCV viral load at 12 weeks) and sustained virological response (undetectable HCV viral load 24 weeks after treatment discontinuation).

RESULTS

Among 212 patients, 74 (35%) received abacavir. For patients infected with HCV genotype 1 or 4, no differences were observed between abacavir users and non-users in early virological response (26 [40%] versus 53 [44%]; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-2.00) or sustained virological response (8 [13%] versus 13 [12%]; adjusted OR 1.34; 95% CI 0.50-3.62). Among genotype 2 and 3 patients, rates of early virological response (7 [78%] versus 16 [89%]; OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.05-3.76) and sustained virological response (3 [33%] versus 8 [44%]; OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.12-3.32) were also similar between abacavir users and non-users. No association was found between other antiretrovirals and a lack of early or sustained response.

CONCLUSIONS

Use of abacavir or other antiretroviral medications was not associated with reduced early or sustained virological response rates.

abstract

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20167995?dopt=Abstract

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2854539/pdf/nihms182897.pdf

March 22, 2011 at 5:28 pm Leave a comment

Does This Patient Have Malaria?

JAMA Nov 10, 2010  V.304  N.18  p.2048-2056

Steve M. Taylor, MD, MPH; Malcolm E. Molyneux, MD, FRCP; David L. Simel, MD, MHS; Steven R. Meshnick, MD, PhD; Jonathan J. Juliano, MD, MSPH

Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health (Dr Taylor) and Department of Medicine (Dr Simel), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi (Dr Molyneux); School of Tropical Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England (Dr Molyneux); Durham Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (Dr Simel); and Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health (Drs Taylor and Meshnick), and Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine (Dr Juliano), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Context

Malaria commonly infects residents of and travelers to tropical regions. The clinical features of infection are notoriously nonspecific but have not been comprehensively evaluated.

Objective

To systematically review and synthesize data related to the predictive value of clinical findings for the diagnosis of malaria in endemic areas and in travelers returning from endemic areas.

Data Sources, Study Selection, and Data Extraction

The databases of MEDLINE and EMBASE (1950-July 2010) were searched to identify studies published in the English language of endemic and “imported” (acquired during travel) malaria. Additional studies were identified from reference lists. Studies were included that had patients suspected of having acute malaria (usually because of fever) and compared the presence or absence of clinical findings with blood smear confirmation. Two authors independently identified studies, appraised study quality, and extracted data on the patient population, outcome assessment, and clinical findings. Differences between reviewers were resolved by consensus.

Data Synthesis

Fourteen studies for endemic malaria were identified that met review criteria. Individual symptoms are of limited diagnostic utility but presence of splenomegaly (summary likelihood ratio [LR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-4.7) or hepatomegaly (summary LR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6-3.6) make malaria more likely. Combinations of findings can affect the likelihood of malaria, but their performance varies by setting. Seven studies of imported malaria were identified. The presence of fever (LR, 5.1; 95% CI, 4.9-5.3), splenomegaly (summary LR, 6.5; 95% CI, 3.9-11.0), hyperbilirubinemia (LR, 7.3; 95% CI, 5.5-9.6), or thrombocytopenia (summary LR, 5.6; 95% CI, 4.1-7.5) make malaria more likely.

Conclusions

In endemic areas, the likelihood of malaria is increased by the presence of splenomegaly and hepatomegaly but individual findings are of limited utility and cannot reliably exclude malaria; combinations of findings may be useful to stratify risk in patients. In returning travelers, the clinical assessment can provide substantial diagnostic benefit, although all patients still require laboratory testing because malaria can be rapidly fatal.

abstract

http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/304/18/2048

March 20, 2011 at 3:42 pm Leave a comment

Myiasis Due to Dermatobia hominis (Human Botfly)

N Engl J of Medicine June 9, 2005

Images in Clinical Medicine

Francisco M. Marty, M.D., and Kristen R. Whiteside, B.S.

A 65-year-old man presented with skin lesions on his chest and left arm and shoulder six weeks after returning from a vacation in Belize at the beach and in the rain forest. The lesions occasionally stung, drained a dark exudate, and enlarged despite two weeks of treatment with cephalexin. The patient had no constitutional symptoms. Physical examination revealed five nodules of varying sizes with surrounding erythema and a central pore through which a single, moving larva was observed (Panel A). The pores were occluded with petrolatum for two hours. After lidocaine was injected around the nodules, five Dermatobia hominis larvae at various developmental stages were extracted with the use of manual pressure and tweezers (Panel B and Video Clip …

Full Text

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMicm041049

PDF

http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMicm041049

March 15, 2011 at 11:44 am Leave a comment

Increased Risk of Fragility Fractures among HIV Infected Compared to Uninfected Male Veterans.

PLoS One. 2011 Feb 16;6(2):e17217.

Womack JA, Goulet JL, Gibert C, Brandt C, Chang CC, Gulanski B, Fraenkel L, Mattocks K, Rimland D, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Tate J, Yin MT, Justice AC; for the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Project Team.

VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

HIV infection has been associated with an increased risk of fragility fracture. We explored whether or not this increased risk persisted in HIV infected and uninfected men when controlling for traditional fragility fracture risk factors.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

Cox regression models were used to assess the association of HIV infection with the risk for incident hip, vertebral, or upper arm fracture in male Veterans enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort (VACS-VC). We calculated adjusted hazard ratios comparing HIV status and controlling for demographics and other established risk factors. The sample consisted of 119,318 men, 33% of whom were HIV infected (34% aged 50 years or older at baseline, and 55% black or Hispanic). Median body mass index (BMI) was lower in HIV infected compared with uninfected men (25 vs. 28 kg/m(2); p<0.0001). Unadjusted risk for fracture was higher among HIV infected compared with uninfected men [HR: 1.32 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.47)]. After adjusting for demographics, comorbid disease, smoking and alcohol abuse, HIV infection remained associated with an increased fracture risk [HR: 1.24 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.39)]. However, adjusting for BMI attenuated this association [HR: 1.10 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.25)]. The only HIV-specific factor associated with fragility fracture was current protease inhibitor use [HR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.70)].

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE

HIV infection is associated with fragility fracture risk. This risk is attenuated by BMI.

abstract

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21359191?dopt=Abstract

Full Text

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3040233/?tool=pubmed

March 15, 2011 at 1:37 am Leave a comment

Effect of transmitted drug resistance on virological and immunological response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV (EuroCoord-CHAIN joint project): a European multicohort study.

Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 25.

Wittkop L, Günthard HF, de Wolf F, Dunn D, Cozzi-Lepri A, de Luca A, Kücherer C, Obel N, von Wyl V, Masquelier B, Stephan C, Torti C, Antinori A, García F, Judd A, Porter K, Thiébaut R, Castro H, van Sighem AI, Colin C, Kjaer J, Lundgren JD, Paredes R, Pozniak A, Clotet B, Phillips A, Pillay D, Chêne G; for the EuroCoord-CHAIN study group.

INSERM U897 Centre of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, ISPED Bordeaux School of Public Health, University Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux, France.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The effect of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) on first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV-1 needs further study to inform choice of optimum drug regimens. We investigated the effect of TDR on outcome in the first year of cART within a large European collaboration.

METHODS

HIV-infected patients of any age were included if they started cART (at least three antiretroviral drugs) for the first time after Jan 1, 1998, and were antiretroviral naive and had at least one sample for a genotypic test taken before the start of cART. We used the WHO drug resistance list and the Stanford algorithm to classify patients into three resistance categories: no TDR, at least one mutation and fully-active cART, or at least one mutation and resistant to at least one prescribed drug. Virological failure was defined as time to the first of two consecutive viral load measurements over 500 copies per mL after 6 months of therapy.

FINDINGS

Of 10 056 patients from 25 cohorts, 9102 (90·5%) had HIV without TDR, 475 (4·7%) had at least one mutation but received fully-active cART, and 479 (4·8%) had at least one mutation and resistance to at least one drug. Cumulative Kaplan-Meier estimates for virological failure at 12 months were 4·2% (95% CI 3·8-4·7) for patients in the no TDR group, 4·7% (2·9-7·5) for those in the TDR and fully-active cART group, and 15·1% (11·9-19·0) for those in the TDR and resistant group (log-rank p<0·0001). The hazard ratio for the difference in virological failure between patients with TDR and resistance to at least one drug and those without TDR was 3·13 (95% CI 2·33-4·20, p<0·0001). The hazard ratio for the difference between patients with TDR receiving fully-active cART and patients without TDR was 1·47 (95% CI 0·19-2·38, p=0·12). In stratified analysis, the hazard ratio for the risk of virological failure in patients with TDR who received fully-active cART that included a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) compared with those without TDR was 2·0 (95% CI 0·9-4·7, p=0·093).

INTERPRETATION

These findings confirm present treatment guidelines for HIV, which state that the initial treatment choice should be based on resistance testing in treatment-naive patients.

FUNDING

European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 and Gilead.

abstract

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Effect%20of%20transmitted%20drug%20resistance%20on%20virological%20and%20immunological%20response%20to%20initial%20combination%20antiretroviral%20therapy%20for%20HIV%20(EuroCoord-CHAIN%20joint%20project)%3A%20A%20European%20multicohort%20study

March 15, 2011 at 1:34 am Leave a comment

Projected survival gains from revising state laws requiring written opt-in consent for HIV testing.

Journal of General Internal Medicine 2011 Feb 1

Michael D. April, John J. Chiosi, A. David Paltiel, Paul E. Sax and Rochelle P. Walensky

Background 

Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends HIV testing in all settings unless patients refuse (opt-out consent), many state laws require written opt-in consent.

Objective 

To quantify potential survival gains from passing state laws streamlining HIV testing consent.

Design 

We retrieved surveillance data to estimate the current annual HIV diagnosis rate in states with laws requiring written opt-in consent (19.3%). Published data informed the effect of removing that requirement on diagnosis rate (48.5% increase). These parameters then served as input for a model-driven projection of survival based on consent method. Other inputs included undiagnosed HIV prevalence (0.101%); and annual HIV incidence (0.023%).

Patients 

Hypothetical cohort of adults (>13 years) living in written opt-in states.

Measurements 

Life years gained (LYG).

Results 

In the base-case, of the 53,036,383 adult persons living in written opt-in states, 0.66% (350,040) will be infected with HIV. Due to earlier diagnosis, revised consent laws yield 1.5 LYG per HIV-infected person, corresponding to 537,399 LYG among this population. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that diagnosis rate increases of 24.8-72.3% result in 304,765–724,195 LYG. Net survival gains vanish if the proportion of HIV-infected persons refusing all testing in response to revised laws exceeds 18.2%.

Conclusions 

The potential survival gains of increased testing are substantial, suggesting that state laws requiring opt-in HIV testing should be revised.

abstract

http://www.springerlink.com/content/a51255x4tl600874/

March 15, 2011 at 1:32 am Leave a comment

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