Archive for December 23, 2011

Heterosexual risk of HIV infection in China: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Chin Med J (Engl). 2011 Jun;124(12):1890-6.

Zang CP, Jia ZW, Brown K, Reilly KH, Wang JJ, Wang N.

Source

National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 155 Changbai Road, Changping District, Beijing 102206, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Heterosexual sex has become the dominant transmission route inChina. Recently studies reported high heterogeneity in heterosexual transmission risk in resource-limited countries. The aim of this study was to summarize the risk of HIV transmission among Chinese serodiscordant couples.

METHODS:

A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies of heterosexual HIV transmission among serodiscordant couples inChinawas conducted. Two reviewers conducted a literature search using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Medical Current Contents (CMCC), and Medline databases. Pooled transmission estimates per 100 person-years (PY) were calculated using a random-effects model. Meta-regression analysis and subgroup analysis stratified by study design, transmission direction and period of antiretroviral therapy (ART) availability were conducted to assess the factors associated with transmission.

RESULTS:

Eleven eligible studies were identified reporting on 11 984 couples and 405 HIV transmission events. HIV transmission risk from HIV-positive individuals to heterosexual partners was 1.68 (95%CI 0.74 – 2.62) per 100 PY. Study design did not reach statistical significance in meta-regression analysis. The pooled female-to-male transmission estimate was 1.11 (95%CI 0.09 – 2.14) per 100 PY and male-to-female transmission estimate was 1.43 (95%CI 0.19 – 2.68) per 100 PY. The pooled estimate for those before the availability of the Chinese National Free Antiretroviral Therapy Program (2.13 (95%CI 0.00 – 4.63) per 100 PY) was higher than that for those after the implementation of this program (1.44 (95%CI 0.62 – 2.26) per 100 PY).

CONCLUSIONS:

Transmission estimates inChinawere lower than other developing countries, but higher than developed countries. Research that better defines HIV secondary transmission rates and the associated behavioral, treatment adherence, and health-related risk factors among heterosexual serodiscordant couples inChinais needed.

PDF

http://www.cmj.org/Periodical/PDF/201161658023860.pdf

December 23, 2011 at 11:58 pm Leave a comment

Update: Influenza A (H3N2)v Transmission and Guidelines — Five States, 2011

MMWR Dec.23, 2011  V.60 Early Release P.1-4

As of December 23, 2011, CDC had received reports of 12 human infections with influenza A (H3N2)v viruses that have the matrix (M) gene from the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus (formerly called swine-origin influenza A [H3N2] and pandemic influenza A [H1N1] 2009 viruses, respectively). The 12 cases occurred in five states (Indiana,Iowa,Maine,Pennsylvania, andWest Virginia), and 11 were in children. This report describes those cases and swine influenza virus (SIV) surveillance being conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

FULL TEXT

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm60e1223a1.htm?s_cid=mm60e1223a1_e

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm60e1223.pdf

December 23, 2011 at 11:51 pm Leave a comment


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