Archive for June 21, 2012

Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Containing New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase in Two Patients — Rhode Island, March 2012

MMWR June 22, 2012   V.61  N.24  P.446-448

U.S. and international efforts to control carabapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are critical to protect public health. Clinicians caring for patients infected with such organisms have few, if any, therapeutic options available. CRE containing New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM), first reported in a patient who had been hospitalized in New Delhi, India, in 2007, are of particular concern because these enzymes usually are encoded on plasmids that harbor multiple resistance determinants and are transmitted easily to other Enterobacteriaceae and other genera of bacteria. A urine specimen collected on March 4, 2012, from a patient who recently had been hospitalized inViet Nam, but who was receiving care at a hospital inRhode Island, was found to have a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate containing NDM. The isolate was …

FULL TEXT

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6124a3.htm?s_cid=mm6124a3_e

PDF pag.446

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm6124.pdf

June 21, 2012 at 1:44 pm

Does the number of wires used to close a sternotomy have an impact on deep sternal wound infection?

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2012 May 18.

Shaikhrezai K, Robertson FL, Anderson SE, Slight RD, Brackenbury ET.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, NHS Lothian, Edinburgh, UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

We studied the influence of the number of sternotomy mechanical fixation points on deep sternal wound infection (DSWI).

METHODS

Between September 2007 and February 2011, 2672 patients underwent a standard peri-sternal wire closure following a median sternotomy for a first-time cardiac surgery. Data were collected during the study period.

RESULTS

The mean age of the patients was 66 ± 11 and 1978 (74.0%) were male. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 28.9 ± 9.3 and the median of the logistic EuroSCORE was 3.14, with a range of 0.88-54.1. Postoperatively, 40 (1.5%) patients developed DSWI after 14 ± 6 days, of whom 39 (92.5%) had positive deep sternal wound specimen cultures, predominantly Staphylococci (62.5%). The risk of DSWI was significantly increased in patients in whom eight or fewer paired points of sternal wire fixation were used when compared with patients in whom nine or more paired points of fixation were used (P = 0.002). Preoperative myocardial infarction (P = 0.001), elevated BMI (P = 0.046), bilateral internal mammary artery harvest (P < 0.0001), postoperative hypoxia (P < 0.0001), sepsis (P = 0.019) and postoperative inotrope use (P = 0.007) significantly increased the risk of DSWI.

CONCLUSIONS

DSWI is associated with hypoxia, ischaemia, sepsis and mechanical sternal instability. DSWI may be prevented by using nine or more paired fixation points when closing with standard peri-sternal wires.

PDF

http://icvts.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/05/18/icvts.ivs200.full.pdf+html

June 21, 2012 at 1:42 pm

Antibiotics in critically ill patients: a systematic review of the pharmacokinetics of β-lactams.

Crit Care. 2011  V.15 N.5 R206..

Gonçalves-Pereira J, Póvoa P.

Polyvalent Intensive Care Unit, São Francisco Xavier Hospital, Estrada do Forte do Alto do Duque, 1449-005 Lisboa, Portugal. joaogpster@gmail.com

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Several reports have shown marked heterogeneity of antibiotic pharmacokinetics (PK) in patients admitted to ICUs, which might potentially affect outcomes. Therefore, the pharmacodynamic (PD) parameter of the efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics, that is, the time that its concentration is above the bacteria minimal inhibitory concentration (T > MIC), cannot be safely extrapolated from data derived from the PK of healthy volunteers.

METHODS:

We performed a full review of published studies addressing the PK of intravenous β-lactam antibiotics given to infected ICU patients. Study selection comprised a comprehensive bibliographic search of the PubMed database and bibliographic references in relevant reviews from January 1966 to December 2010. We selected only English-language articles reporting studies addressing β-lactam antibiotics that had been described in at least five previously published studies. Studies of the PK of patients undergoing renal replacement therapy were excluded.

RESULTS:

A total of 57 studies addressing six different β-lactam antibiotics (meropenem, imipenem, piperacillin, cefpirome, cefepime and ceftazidime) were selected. Significant PK heterogeneity was noted, with a broad, more than twofold variation both of volume of distribution and of drug clearance (Cl). The correlation of antibiotic Cl with creatinine clearance was usually reported. Consequently, in ICU patients, β-lactam antibiotic half-life and T > MIC were virtually unpredictable, especially in those patients with normal renal function. A better PD profile was usually obtained by prolonged or even continuous infusion. Tissue penetration was also found to be compromised in critically ill patients with septic shock.

CONCLUSIONS:

The PK of β-lactam antibiotics are heterogeneous and largely unpredictable in ICU patients. Consequently, the dosing of antibiotics should be supported by PK concepts, including data derived from studies of the PK of ICU patients and therapeutic drug monitoring.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3334750/pdf/cc10441.pdf

June 21, 2012 at 1:40 pm

Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of colistin and imipenem on mucoid and nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Sep  V.55 N.9  P.4469-74.

Hengzhuang W, Wu H, Ciofu O, Song Z, Høiby N.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 22, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

The time course of activity of colistin and imipenem against mucoid and nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in a biofilm showed that compared with those for planktonic bacteria, the kinetics of colistin and imipenem retained the concentration- and time-dependent killing, respectively, but higher doses of antibiotics and longer dosing periods were required for biofilm eradication. Biofilms of mucoid P. aeruginosa were more difficult to eradicate than nonmucoid biofilms.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165294/pdf/zac4469.pdf

 

June 21, 2012 at 1:37 pm

Prepatellar bursitis due to Brucella abortus: case report and analysis of the local immune response.

J Med Microbiol. Dec. 2010  V.59 Pt 12 P.1514-8.

Wallach JC, Delpino MV, Scian R, Deodato B, Fossati CA, Baldi PC.

Servicio de Brucelosis, Hospital F. J. Muñiz, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Abstract

A case of prepatellar bursitis in a man with chronic brucellosis is presented. Brucella abortus biotype 1 was isolated from the abundant yellowish fluid obtained from the bursa. Clinical and epidemiological data did not suggest a direct inoculation of the agent in the bursa. However, the patient mentioned occasional local trauma due to recreational sports, which may have constituted a predisposing factor. As determined by ELISA, there were higher levels of IgG against Brucella LPS and cytosolic proteins detected in the patient’s bursal synovial fluid when compared with serum. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, gamma interferon, interleukin 8 and MCP-1) were higher than in synovial fluids obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and a patient with septic arthritis, and a zymographic analysis revealed a gelatinase of about 92 kDa. These findings indicate that it may be possible to diagnose brucellar bursitis by measuring specific antibodies in the bursal synovial fluid. In addition, our findings suggest a role of increased local levels of proinflammatory cytokines and gelatinases in the inflammatory manifestations of brucellar bursitis.

PDF

http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/content/59/12/1514.full.pdf+html

June 21, 2012 at 1:35 pm


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