Archive for June 26, 2012

Evaluating the frequency of postoperative Fever in patients with coronary artery bypass surgey.

ARYA Atheroscler. 2011 Fall  V.7 N.3 P.119-23.

Rostami M, Mirmohammadsadeghi M, Zohrenia H.

Associate Professor, Infectious Diseases Research Center, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Nowadays, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a frequent surgery in treatment of coronary artery disease. According to high expense of this surgery and its important role in patients’ quality of life, high survival rate of patients and success of surgery are necessary. The aim of this study was the evaluation of fever incidence (febrile events) due to incidence of pneumonia, wound infection, bacteremia, urinary tract infection and inflammatory response without infection after CABG.

METHODS:

In an intergrades descriptive-analytical study, 107 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) were enrolled in the study. The patients then were examined by the febrile events and also their characteristics including age, sex, duration of surgery, underlying diseases, and frequency distribution of antibiotics consumptions in pre-surgical and postsurgical periods, and incidence of infectious syndromes.

RESULTS:

Frequency distribution of febrile events after CABG was 29.9 percent. The most common administered antibiotic before the surgery was cephalothin (Keflin) and then, cefazolin. The most common administered antibiotic after the surgery was cephalothin (Keflin) and cephalexin (47.7%) and then, cephalothin-gentamicin-cephalexin (31.8%). The average age of patients without febrile syndrome was 60.53 years and in those with febrile syndrome was 59.31 years. In terms of gender, 74.8% of the patients were males. So that 32.5% of males and 22.2% of females had fever. The incidence time of fever in most cases was in the postoperative fourth day. In terms of underlying diseases, 13 percent of them had hypertension and hyperlipidemia, 14 percent had only hypertension, 11.2 percent had only hyperlipidemia and 6.5 percent had diabetes.

CONCLUSION:

This study showed that the prevalence of fever in patients undergoing CABG was 29.9 percent and the most common cause of fever was sternal infections. There was a significant correlation between administered antibiotics in preoperative and postoperative periods and febrile syndrome.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3347853/pdf/ARYA-7-119.pdf

June 26, 2012 at 1:54 pm

The prevalence of urogenital infections in pregnant women experiencing preterm and full-term labor.

Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2012 

Giraldo PC, Araújo ED, Junior JE, do Amaral RL, Passos MR, Gonçalves AK.

Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brazil. giraldo@unicamp.br

Abstract

Urogenital infections are extremely prevalent during pregnancy and are an important cause of premature labor. However, the prevalence of urogenital infections during childbirth is not well known. Objective. Identify urogenital infections present at the beginning of labor in both full-term and preterm pregnancies. Study Design. Ninety-four women were admitted to the inpatient maternity clinic of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN). In total, 49 women in preterm labor and 45 women in full-term labor were included in the study, and samples of urinary, vaginal, and perianal material were collected for microbiological analysis. Results. The prevalences of general infections in the preterm labor group and the full-term labor group were 49.0% and 53.3% (P = 0.8300), respectively. Urogenital infections in the preterm and full-term labor groups included urinary tract infection in 36.7% and 22.2% of women, vaginal candidiasis in 20.4% and 28.9% of women, bacterial vaginosis in 34.7% and 28.9% of women, and group B streptococcus in 6.1% and 15.6% of women, respectively. Conclusions. Urogenital infections were prevalent in women in preterm labor and full-term labor; however, significant differences between the groups were not observed.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3296138/pdf/IDOG2012-878241.pdf

June 26, 2012 at 1:50 pm

Rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in urinary tract infections during pregnancy: necessity for exploring newer treatment options.

J Lab Physicians. 2011 Jul  V.3  N.2  P.98-103.

Rizvi M, Khan F, Shukla I, Malik A, Shaheen.

Department of Microbiology, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh 202 002, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy. The emergence of drug resistance and particularly the Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production by Escherichia coli and methicillin resistance in Staphylococci, limits the choice of antimicrobials.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Patients in different stages of pregnancy with or without symptoms of urinary tract infection attending the antenatal clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology were screened for significant bacteriuria, by standard loop method on 5% sheep blood agar and teepol lactose agar. Isolates were identified by using standard biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method.

RESULTS:

A total of 4290 (51.2%) urine samples from pregnant females showed growth on culture. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria 3210 (74.8%) was higher than symptomatic UTI 1080 (25.2%). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen accounting for 1800 (41.9%) of the urinary isolates. Among the gram-positive cocci, coagulase negative species of Staphylococci 270 (6.4%) were the most common pathogen. Significantly high resistance was shown by the gram negative bacilli as well as gram positive cocci to the β-lactam group of antimicrobials, flouroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Most alarming was the presence of ESBL in 846 (47%) isolates of Escherichia coli and 344 (36.9%) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, along with the presence of methicillin resistance in 41% of Staphylococcus species and high-level aminoglycoside resistance in 45(30%) isolates of Enterococcus species. Glycopeptides and carbepenems were the only group of drugs to which all the strains of gram positive cocci and gram negative bacilli were uniformly sensitive, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Regular screening should be done for the presence of symptomatic or asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy and specific guidelines should be issued for testing antimicrobial susceptibility with safe drugs in pregnant women so that these can be used for the treatment. For empirical treatment cefoperazone-sulbactum can be recommended, which is a safe drug, covering both gram positive and gram negative organisms and with a good sensitivity.

FULL TEXT

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249726/?tool=pubmed

June 26, 2012 at 1:49 pm


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