Archive for July 25, 2012

Images in clinical medicine. Whooping cough in an adult.

N Engl J Med. 2012 Jun 21  V.366 N.25 e39.

Rutledge RK, Keen EC.

Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Newton, MA, USA.


July 25, 2012 at 2:49 pm

Pertussis epidemic – Washington, 2012.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012 Jul 20  V.61 P.517-22.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).


Since mid-2011, a substantial rise in pertussis cases has been reported in the state of Washington. In response to this increase, the Washington State Secretary of Health declared a pertussis epidemic on April 3, 2012. By June 16, the reported number of cases in Washington in 2012 had reached 2,520 (37.5 cases per 100,000 residents), a 1,300% increase compared with the same period in 2011 and the highest number of cases reported in any year since 1942. To assess clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory factors associated with this increase, all pertussis cases reported during January 1-June 16, 2012, were reviewed. Consistent with national trends, high rates of pertussis were observed among infants aged <1 year and children aged 10 years. However, the incidence in adolescents aged 13-14 years also was increased, despite high rates of vaccination with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, suggesting early waning of immunity. The focus of prevention and control efforts is the protection of infants and others at greatest risk for severe disease and improving vaccination coverage in adolescents and adults, especially those who are pregnant. Pertussis vaccination remains the single most effective strategy for prevention of infection.


July 25, 2012 at 2:47 pm

The dynamics of norovirus outbreak epidemics: recent insights.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Apr  V.8  N.4  P.1141-9.

Marshall JA, Bruggink LD.

Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, North Melbourne, Victoria 3051, Australia.


Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Norovirus outbreaks frequently occur as epidemics which appear to be related to both genetic and environmental factors. This review considers recent progress in understanding these factors. The norovirus genome undergoes continuous change and this appears to be important in the persistence of the virus in the community. Studies on the common GII.4 genotype have shown that some norovirus outbreak epidemics involving this genotype are correlated with specific changes in the genome. In contrast to the growing understanding of the role of genetic factors in norovirus outbreak epidemics, the role of environmental factors is less well understood. Topics reviewed here include long term excretion of norovirus in some individuals, long term survivability of norovirus in the environment, the role of meteorological factors in the control of norovirus outbreaks and the possible zoonotic transmission of the virus.


July 25, 2012 at 2:45 pm

Noroviruses: The leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide.

Discov Med. 2010 Jul V.10 N.50  P.61-70.

Koo HL, Ajami N, Atmar RL, DuPont HL.

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.


Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and may soon eclipse rotaviruses as the most common cause of severe pediatric gastroenteritis, as the use of rotavirus vaccines becomes more widespread. Genetic mutations and recombinations contribute to the broad heterogeneity of noroviruses and the emergence of new epidemic strains. Although typically a self-limited disease, norovirus gastroenteritis can cause significant morbidity and mortality among children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. The lack of a cell culture or small animal model has hindered norovirus research and the development of novel therapeutic and preventative interventions. However, vaccines based on norovirus capsid protein virus-like particles are promising and may one day become widely available through transgenic expression in plants.


July 25, 2012 at 2:42 pm

Complications, diagnosis, management, and prevention of CMV infections: current and future.

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2011 P.305-9.

Boeckh M.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease and Clinical Research Divisions, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109-4417, USA.


Although major progress has been made in the prevention of CMV disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), specific problems remain and available antiviral agents are associated with major toxicities. This article reviews current aspects of CMV diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in HCT recipients and defines areas of unmet medical need.


July 25, 2012 at 2:38 pm


July 2012

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