Archive for May 16, 2013

Acute respiratory infection due to Chlamydia pneumoniae – current status of diagnostic methods.

Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Feb 15;44(4):568-76.

Kumar S, Hammerschlag MR.

Source

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA. swati.kumar@downstate.edu

Abstract

Reliable diagnosis of respiratory infection due to Chlamydia pneumoniae and investigation of its role in chronic diseases remain difficult because of the absence of well-standardized and commercially available diagnostic tests. In 2001, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published recommendations for standardizing the diagnostic approach. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge of C. pneumoniae-associated respiratory infections in the context of epidemiological studies published during the past 5 years, with particular emphasis on the diagnostic strategies used and their impact on results. The single most likely factor underlying wide variations in data is the significant interstudy variation of the choice of diagnostic methods and criteria used. Adoption of a more unified approach, both for choices of diagnostic methods and for validation of new molecular assays, is long overdue and will be critically important for development of a standardized test for clinical laboratories.

PDF

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/44/4/568.full.pdf+html

May 16, 2013 at 3:30 pm

Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory aspects of pertussis in adults.

Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Jun;28 Suppl 2:S112-7.

Cherry JD.

Source

Department of Pediatrics and the UCLA Center for Vaccine Research, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095-1752, USA. jcherry@pediatrics.medsch.ucla.edu

Abstract

In populations without immunization, pertussis is a high-incidence, endemic disease with cyclic epidemic peaks occurring every 2-5 years. The universal use of pertussis vaccines in children results in a marked reduction in incidence, but the frequency of disease cycles does not lengthen. This indicates that the organism (Bordetella pertussis) remains prevalent in the population. Studies of prolonged cough illnesses in adolescents and adults indicate that between 12% and 32% are the result of B. pertussis infection. Serological survey data indicate that all adults have been previously infected, and IgA antibody studies suggest that infections in adults are as frequent in the United States, where pertussis has been controlled, as in Germany, where pertussis has been epidemic. Because of the apparent reservoir of B. pertussis infections in adolescents and adults, I believe that B. pertussis circulation cannot be controlled by our present childhood immunization program. Acellular pertussis vaccines make adolescent and adult booster immunization programs possible, and these could lead to a decrease in the circulation of the organism.

PDF

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/Supplement_2/S112.long

May 16, 2013 at 3:28 pm

Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus.

N Engl J Med. 2001 Jun 21;344(25):1917-28.

Hall CB.

Source

University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY, USA.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), originally recovered from a colony of chimpanzees with coryza and designated chimpanzee coryza agent, and human parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been known primarily as respiratory pathogens in young children. They are now recognized as important pathogens in adults as well. Adults infected with these viruses tend to have more variable and less distinctive clinical findings than children, and the viral cause of the infection is often unsuspected. The consistency of the annual outbreaks of these agents and the frequency of reinfection suggest that they impose a considerable, but ill-defined, disease burden throughout life…..

PDF

http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM200106213442507

May 16, 2013 at 3:26 pm

Diagnosis of human toxocarosis.

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2010 Oct-Dec;27(4):613-20.

[Article in Spanish]

Roldán WH, Espinoza YA, Huapaya PE, Jiménez S.

Source

Departamento Académico de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. willyroldan23@hotmail.com

Abstract

Human toxocarosis is an important parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Toxocara species, the roundworms from dogs and cats. Larval migration through different soft tissues in the human generates several clinical entities in the patient, such as visceral larva migrans, ocular toxocarosis, and neurotoxocarosis. Definitive diagnosis by histopathological methods is very difficult or almost impossible and, nowadays, the diagnosis is usually made by clinical signs/symptoms, epidemiological background of the patient and the use of hematological and immunological tests which finally help to confirm the clinical suspicion of the illness. The purpose of this paper was to update the available knowledge on the use of different tools for both the diagnosis and following up of human toxocarosis.

PDF

http://www.scielosp.org/pdf/rpmesp/v27n4/a19v27n4.pdf

May 16, 2013 at 3:23 pm


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