Archive for May 23, 2013

Human Infection with a Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

N Engl J of Medic May 16, 2013 V.368 P.1888-1897

Rongbao Gao, M.D., Bin Cao, M.D., Yunwen Hu, M.D., Zijian Feng, M.D., M.P.H., Dayan Wang, M.D., Wanfu Hu, M.D., Jian Chen, M.D., Zhijun Jie, M.D., Haibo Qiu, M.D., Ph.D., Ke Xu, M.D., Xuewei Xu, M.D., Hongzhou Lu, M.D., Ph.D., Wenfei Zhu, M.D., Zhancheng Gao, M.D., Nijuan Xiang, M.D., Yinzhong Shen, M.D., Zebao He, M.D., Yong Gu, M.D., Zhiyong Zhang, M.D., Yi Yang, M.D., Ph.D., Xiang Zhao, M.D., Lei Zhou, M.D., Xiaodan Li, M.D., Shumei Zou, M.D., Ye Zhang, M.D., Xiyan Li, M.D., Lei Yang, M.D., Junfeng Guo, M.D., Jie Dong, M.D., Qun Li, M.D., Libo Dong, M.D., Yun Zhu, M.D., Tian Bai, M.D., Shiwen Wang, M.D., Pei Hao, M.D., Weizhong Yang, M.D., Yanping Zhang, M.D., Jun Han, M.D., Hongjie Yu, M.D., Dexin Li, M.D., George F. Gao, Ph.D., Guizhen Wu, M.D., Yu Wang, M.D., Zhenghong Yuan, Ph.D., and Yuelong Shu, Ph.D.


Infection of poultry with influenza A subtype H7 viruses occurs worldwide, but the introduction of this subtype to humans in Asia has not been observed previously. In March 2013, three urban residents of Shanghai or Anhui, China, presented with rapidly progressing lower respiratory tract infections and were found to be infected with a novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus.


We obtained and analyzed clinical, epidemiologic, and virologic data from these patients. Respiratory specimens were tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses by means of real-time reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction assays, viral culturing, and sequence analyses.


A novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus was isolated from respiratory specimens obtained from all three patients and was identified as H7N9. Sequencing analyses revealed that all the genes from these three viruses were of avian origin, with six internal genes from avian influenza A (H9N2) viruses. Substitution Q226L (H3 numbering) at the 210-loop in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene was found in the A/Anhui/1/2013 and A/Shanghai/2/2013 virus but not in the A/Shanghai/1/2013 virus. A T160A mutation was identified at the 150-loop in the HA gene of all three viruses. A deletion of five amino acids in the neuraminidase (NA) stalk region was found in all three viruses. All three patients presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea. Two of the patients had a history of recent exposure to poultry. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure. All three patients died.


Novel reassortant H7N9 viruses were associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in three patients. (Funded by the National Basic Research Program of China and others.)


May 23, 2013 at 1:30 pm

Global Concerns Regarding Novel Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Infections

N Engl J of Medic May 16, 2013 V.368 P.1862-1864


Timothy M. Uyeki, M.D., M.P.H., M.P.P., and Nancy J. Cox, Ph.D.

From the Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta.

Severe disease in humans caused by a novel influenza A virus that is distinct from circulating human influenza A viruses is a seminal event. It might herald sporadic human infections from an animal source — e.g., highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) virus; or it might signal the start of an influenza pandemic — e.g., influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Therefore, the discovery of novel influenza A (H7N9) virus infections in three critically ill patients reported in the Journal by Gao and colleagues (pages 1888–1897) is of major public health significance. Chinese scientists are to be congratulated for the apparent speed with which the H7N9 virus was identified, and whole viral genome sequences were made publicly available in relatively short order. Because this H7N9 virus has not been detected in humans or animals previously, the situation raises many urgent questions and global public health concerns….


May 23, 2013 at 1:28 pm

A prospective study of risk factors for neurological complications in childhood bacterial meningitis.

J Pediatr (Rio J). 2013 Apr 28.

Namani S, Milenković Z, Koci B.


PhD. Infectious Diseases Clinic, University Clinical Center of Kosovo, Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina, Kosovo. Electronic address:



To prospectively analyze the prognostic factors for neurological complications of childhood bacterial meningitis.


This prospective study enrolled 77 children from 1 month until 16 years of age, treated for bacterial meningitis during the period of January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2010. 16 relevant predictors were chosen to analyze their association with the incidence of neurological complications. p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.


Of the 77 children treated for bacterial meningitis, 33 patients developed neurological complications (43%), and two children died (2.6%). The etiology of bacterial meningitis cases was proven in 57/77 (74%) cases: 32 meningococci, eight pneumococci, six Gram-negative bacilli, five H. influenzae, five staphylococci, and one S. viridans isolates were found. Factors found to be associated with increased risk of development of neurological complications were age < 12 months, altered mental status, seizures prior to admission, initial therapy with two antibiotics, dexamethasone use, presence of focal neurological deficit on admission and increased proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (p < 0.05). Initial pleocytosis > 5,000 cells/mm3, pleocytosis > 5,000 cells/mm3 after 48hours, CSF/blood glucose ratio < 0.20, female gender, previous treatment with antibiotics, community-acquired infection, duration of illness > 48hours, presence of comorbidity, and primary focus of infection were not associated with increased risk for the development of neurological complications.


Age < 12 months and severity of clinical presentation at admission were identified as the strongest predictors of neurological complications and may be of value in selecting patients for more intensive care and treatment.


May 23, 2013 at 1:18 pm

Necrotizing fasciitis.

Intern Med. 2010;49(12):1051-7.

Shimizu T, Tokuda Y.


Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Georgia, Atlanta, USA.


Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a necrotizing soft tissue infection that can cause rapid local tissue destruction, necrosis and life-threatening severe sepsis. Predisposing conditions for NF include diabetes, malignancy, alcohol abuse, and chronic liver and kidney diseases. NF is classified into two categories (types 1 and 2) based on causative microorganisms. The initial clinical picture of NF mimics that of cellulitis or erysipelas, including fever, pain, tenderness, swelling and erythema. The cardinal manifestations of NF are severe pain at onset out of proportion to local findings, hemorrhagic bullae and/or vital sign abnormality. In such cases, NF should be strongly suspected and immediate surgical intervention should be considered, along with broad-spectrum antimicrobials and general supportive measures, regardless of the findings of imaging tests.


May 23, 2013 at 1:16 pm


An Bras Dermatol. 2012 Mar-Apr;87(2):277-84.

Empinotti JC, Uyeda H, Ruaro RT, Galhardo AP, Bonatto DC.


Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil.


Pyodermitis are primary skin infections mainly caused by pyogenic bacteria of the Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera. They are relatively common diseases that affect adults and children. There have been frequent reports of bacterial resistance to the recommended antibiotics over the last few years; however, new substances are in use or under development, and this represents an evolution in the treatment of pyodermitis. This review aims at describing clinical, diagnostic and therapeutical features of major pyodermitis: impetigo, ecthyma, erysipelas, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome and folliculitis.


May 23, 2013 at 1:15 pm

Community-acquired CTX-M-15-type ESBL-producing Escherichia coli meningitis: a case report and literature review.

J Infect Dev Ctries. 2013 May 13;7(5):424-31.

Elaldi N, Gozel MG, Kolayli F, Engin A, Celik C, Bakici MZ, Vahaboglu H.


Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey.


In this report, a case of community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis (CA-ABM) caused by CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli in an elderly male patient was presented in the light of literature. Cultures of cerebrospinal fluid, blood, ear discharge, and stool samples yielded CTX-M-15-producing E. coli in-vitro, which was resistant to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin and susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and amikacin. Meningitis was treated with parenteral meropenem plus parenteral and intraventricular amikacin administration. Since bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening infection, empiric antibiotic therapy with carbapenem can be started before the culture results are obtained, mainly in areas where the ESBL epidemiology is well known.


May 23, 2013 at 1:14 pm


May 2013

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