Archive for May, 2013

Carbapenems: past, present, and future.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Nov;55(11):4943-60.

Papp-Wallace KM, Endimiani A, Taracila MA, Bonomo RA.


Research Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.


In this review, we summarize the current “state of the art” of carbapenem antibiotics and their role in our antimicrobial armamentarium. Among the β-lactams currently available, carbapenems are unique because they are relatively resistant to hydrolysis by most β-lactamases, in some cases act as “slow substrates” or inhibitors of β-lactamases, and still target penicillin binding proteins. This “value-added feature” of inhibiting β-lactamases serves as a major rationale for expansion of this class of β-lactams. We describe the initial discovery and development of the carbapenem family of β-lactams. Of the early carbapenems evaluated, thienamycin demonstrated the greatest antimicrobial activity and became the parent compound for all subsequent carbapenems. To date, more than 80 compounds with mostly improved antimicrobial properties, compared to those of thienamycin, are described in the literature. We also highlight important features of the carbapenems that are presently in clinical use: imipenem-cilastatin, meropenem, ertapenem, doripenem, panipenem-betamipron, and biapenem. In closing, we emphasize some major challenges and urge the medicinal chemist to continue development of these versatile and potent compounds, as they have served us well for more than 3 decades.


May 28, 2013 at 11:21 pm

Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing bacteria.

South Med J. 2011 Jan;104(1):40-5.

Arnold RS, Thom KA, Sharma S, Phillips M, Kristie Johnson J, Morgan DJ.


Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.


Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacteria are a group of emerging highly drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli causing infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Once confined to outbreaks in the northeastern United States (US), they have spread throughout the US and most of the world. KPCs are an important mechanism of resistance for an increasingly wide range of Gram-negative bacteria and are no longer limited to K pneumoniae. KPC-producing bacteria are often misidentified by routine microbiological susceptibility testing and incorrectly reported as sensitive to carbapenems; however, resistance to the carbapenem antibiotic ertapenem is common and a better indicator of the presence of KPCs. Carbapenem antibiotics are generally not effective against KPC-producing organisms. The best therapeutic approach to KPC-producing organisms has yet to be defined; however, common treatments based on in vitro susceptibility testing are the polymyxins, tigecycline, and less frequently, aminoglycoside antibiotics. The purpose of this review is to identify the various challenges that KPC-producing bacteria present to clinicians. These include the need for special techniques for microbiological detection, the potential for nosocomial transmission, and therapeutic challenges related to limited, relatively unproven antimicrobial treatment options.


May 28, 2013 at 11:19 pm


Sociedad Argentina de Infectología (SADI)


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May 25, 2013 at 5:38 pm

Streptococcus sanguis meningitis: report of a case and review of the literature.

Intern Med. 2012;51(21):3073-6.

Fukushima K, Noda M, Saito Y, Ikeda T.


Department of Internal Medicine, Nishinomiya Municipal Central Hospital, Japan.


Viridans streptococcus, an indigenous bacterial species of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, is thought to be a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. The type of streptococcus involved is important because each type causes a different kind of meningitis and is associated with a different outcome. A 39-year-old previously healthy man was admitted due to the onset of acute purulent meningitis. A cerebrospinal fluid culture grew Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis). Although the patient was asymptomatic for dental caries, odontogenic maxillary sinusitis was found to be the cause of the meningitis. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics was successful. Following a review of the pertinent literature, we discuss the characteristics of S. sanguis meningitis.





May 25, 2013 at 5:36 pm

Application of individually performed acrylic cement spacers containing 5% of antibiotic in two-stage revision of hip and knee prosthesis due to infection.

Pol Orthop Traumatol. 2012 Jul 3;77:29-37.

Babiak I.


Comprehensive Rehabilitation Center, Konstancin-Jeziorna, Poland.


Deep infection of a joint endoprosthesis constitutes a threat to the stability of the implant and joint function. It requires a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach, involving the joint revision and removal of the bacterial biofilm from all tissues, the endoprosthesis must be often removed and bone stock infection treated. The paper presents the author’s experience with the use of acrylic cement spacers, custom-made during the surgery and containing low dose of an antibiotic supplemented with 5% of a selected, targeted antibiotic for the infection of hip and knee endoprostheses. 33 two-stage revisions of knee and hip joints with the use of a spacer were performed. They involved 24 knee joints and 9 hip joints. The infections were mostly caused by staphylococci MRSA (18) and MSSA (8), and in some cases Enterococci (4), Salmonella (1), Pseudomonas (1) and Acinetobacter (1). The infection was successfully treated in 31 out of 33 cases (93.93%), including 8 patients with the hip infection and 23 patients with the knee infection. The endoprosthesis was reimplanted in 30 cases: for 7 hips and 23 knees, in 3 remaining cases the endoprosthesis was not reimplanted. Mechanical complications due to the spacer occurred in 4 cases: 3 dislocations and 1 fracture (hip spacer). The patients with hip spacers were ambulatory with a partial weight bearing of the operated extremity and those with knee spacers were also ambulatory with a partial weight bearing, but the extremity was initially protected by an orthosis. The spacer enables to maintain a limb function, and making it by hand allows the addition of the specific bacteria targeted antibiotic thus increasing the likelihood of the effective antibacterial treatment.




May 25, 2013 at 5:34 pm

Hyponatremia is a specific marker of perforation in sigmoid diverticulitis or appendicitis in patients older than 50 years.

Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2013;2013:462891.

Käser SA, Furler R, Evequoz DC, Maurer CA.


Department of General, Visceral, Vascular, and Thoracic Surgery, Hospital of Liestal of The University of Basel, Rheinstrasse 26, 4410 Liestal, Switzerland.


Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate symptoms and signs, inflammation markers, electrolytes, and ECG signs of increased vagal tone as markers of colon perforation in sigmoid diverticulitis or appendicitis. Methods. The records of all patients older than fifty years (only these had routine ECG done) admitted to our emergency station between January 2008 and December 2010 with sigmoid diverticulitis (n = 198, diagnosed by computer tomography) or appendicitis (n = 84, diagnosed intraoperatively) were retrospectively evaluated. Pain score, heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature were assessed at presentation. Before starting infusion therapy, blood was taken to do a blood count and to analyze CRP, the electrolytes, and creatinine levels. Then an ECG was done. Results. The perforation rate was 37% (n = 103). Body temperature, heart rate, sodium, CRP, and leukocytes correlated significantly with infectious colon perforation. However, only body temperature, CRP, and sodium correlated significantly with infectious colon perforation if compared by logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of hyponatremia (sodium level <136 mmol/L) was 29% in the group with infectious colon perforation and 16% in the group without (P = 0.013). Conclusion. Hyponatremia is a specific marker of infectious colon perforation in patients older than fifty years.


May 25, 2013 at 5:31 pm

Increased risk of prosthetic joint infection associated with esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy with biopsy.

Acta Orthop. 2013 Feb;84(1):82-6.

Coelho-Prabhu N, Oxentenko AS, Osmon DR, Baron TH, Hanssen AD, Wilson WR, Steckelberg JM, Baddour LM, Harmsen WS, Mandrekar J, Berbari EF.


Division of Gastroenterology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.



There are no prospective data regarding the risk of prosthetic joint infection following routine gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. We wanted to determine the risk of prosthetic hip or knee infection following gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in patients with joint arthroplasty.


We conducted a prospective, single-center, case-control study at a single, tertiary-care referral center. Cases were defined as adult patients hospitalized for prosthetic joint infection of the hip or knee between December 1, 2001 and May 31, 2006. Controls were adult patients with hip or knee arthroplasties but without a diagnosis of joint infection, hospitalized during the same time period at the same orthopedic hospital. The main outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) of prosthetic joint infection after gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures performed within 2 years before admission.


339 cases and 339 controls were included in the study. Of these, 70 cases (21%) cases and 82 controls (24%) had undergone a gastrointestinal endoscopic procedure in the preceding 2 years. Among gastrointestinal procedures that were assessed, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) with biopsy was associated with an increased risk of prosthetic joint infection (OR = 3, 95% CI: 1.1-7). In a multivariable analysis adjusting for sex, age, joint age, immunosuppression, BMI, presence of wound drain, prior arthroplasty, malignancy, ASA score, and prothrombin time, the OR for infection after EGD with biopsy was 4 (95% CI: 1.5-10).


EGD with biopsy was associated with an increased risk of prosthetic joint infection in patients with hip or knee arthroplasties. This association will need to be confirmed in other epidemiological studies and adequately powered prospective clinical trials prior to recommending antibiotic prophylaxis in these patients.


May 24, 2013 at 3:00 pm

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