Archive for November 17, 2013

Therapy and prophylaxis of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients: a guideline by the German and Austrian AIDS societies (DAIG/ÖAG) (AWMF 055/066).

Infection. 2013 Sep;41 Suppl 2:S91-115.

Thoden J, Potthoff A, Bogner JR, Brockmeyer NH, Esser S, Grabmeier-Pfistershammer K, Haas B, Hahn K, Härter G, Hartmann M, Herzmann C, Hutterer J, Jordan AR, Lange C, Mauss S, Meyer-Olson D, Mosthaf F, Oette M, Reuter S, Rieger A, Rosenkranz T, Ruhnke M, Schaaf B, Schwarze S, Stellbrink HJ, Stocker H, Stoehr A, Stoll M, Träder C, Vogel M, Wagner D, Wyen C, Hoffmann C.

Source

Private Practice Dr. C. Scholz and Dr. J. Thoden, Bertoldstrasse 8, 79098, Freiburg, Germany, jan.thoden@rheuma-freiburg.de.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

There was a growing need for practical guidelines for the most common OIs in Germany and Austria under consideration of the local epidemiological conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The German and Austrian AIDS societies developed these guidelines between March 2010 and November 2011. A structured Medline research was performed for 12 diseases, namely Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus manifestations, candidiasis, herpes simplex virus infections, varizella zoster virus infections, progressive multifocal leucencephalopathy, cryptosporidiosis, cryptococcosis, nontuberculosis mycobacteria infections and tuberculosis. Due to the lack of evidence by randomized controlled trials, part of the guidelines reflects expert opinions. The German version was accepted by the German and Austrian AIDS Societies and was previously published by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF; German Association of the Scientific Medical Societies).

CONCLUSION:

The review presented here is a translation of a short version of the German-Austrian Guidelines of opportunistic infections in HIV patients. These guidelines are well-accepted in a clinical setting in both Germany and Austria. They lead to a similar treatment of a heterogeneous group of patients in these countries.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3776256/pdf/15010_2013_Article_504.pdf

November 17, 2013 at 10:32 am

Presence of Bordetella holmesii in an outbreak of pertussis in Chile.

Rev Chilena Infectol. 2013 Jun;30(3):237-43.

Article in Spanish

Miranda C, Wozniak A, Castillo C, Geoffroy E, Zumarán C, Porte L, Román JC, Potin M, García P.

Source

Laboratorio de Microbiología, Departamento de Laboratorios Clínicos, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

Abstract

The incidence of whooping cough in Chile ranges from 4.1 and 7.5 per hundred thousand inhabitants. B. pertussis detection is performed by Real Time PCR (Q-PCR) directed to the insertion sequence IS481. However, this sequence is also found in the genome of B. bronchiseptica and B. holmesii. The latter is also a respiratory pathogen whose clinical features are similar to B. pertussis.

However, it is important to differentiate between these species because in immunosuppressed patients B. holmesii is more likely to cause bacteremia and is less susceptible to erythromycin.

The goal of this work is to measure prospectively and retrospectively the presence of B. holmesii in samples reported positive for B. pertussis in the period 2010-2011. During this period, 1994 nasopharyngeal specimens entered the laboratory for Bordetella sp. PCR, of which 224 were positive.

The analysis by Q-PCR directed to the recA gene of B. holmesii of all 224 positive samples determined a prevalence of B. holmesii of 0.6% (12/1994). Because of its more aggressive behavior in immunosupressed patients and its different resistance pattern, routine screening of B. pertussis and B. holmesii is currently performed for all samples in which Bordetella sp PCR is initially detected.

PDF

http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/rci/v30n3/art01.pdf

November 17, 2013 at 10:27 am

Simeprevir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Oct 19.

You DM, Pockros PJ.

Source

Naval Medical Center San Diego, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of the Navy , CA , USA.

Abstract

Introduction:

The addition of protease inhibitors such as telaprevir and boceprevir with PEGylated interferon and ribavirin has significantly improved cure rates for genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Simeprevir (TMC435) is a second-generation protease inhibitor that is in development for the treatment of genotype 1 HCV infection.

Areas covered:

The authors present:

i) an overview of Phases I – III clinical trials of simeprevir for HCV infection based on peer-reviewed literature and congress presentations and

ii) an evaluation of the efficacy and safety of simeprevir in the treatment of HCV infection.

Expert opinion:

Simeprevir is a once-daily oral medication that combined with PEGylated interferon and ribavirin appears to be a potent and safe agent to treat genotype 1 HCV infection for patients who are treatment-naïve and prior treatment-failures. Compared to telaprevir and boceprevir, simeprevir will likely be the protease inhibitor of choice for genotype 1 HCV infection based on ease of use, lower rates of adverse events, including rash and anemia, and no significant reported drug-drug interactions.

Associated side effects inherent with interferon-based regimens may be problematic for patients. As HCV therapies evolve into interferon-free regimens, simeprevir may potentially be combined with other oral direct-acting agents without interferon to treat HCV infection.

ONLY abstract

http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1517/14656566.2013.850074

November 17, 2013 at 10:21 am

Routine vaccination against MenB: Considerations for implementation.

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Oct 18;10(2).

Kaaijk P, van der Ende A, Luytjes W.

Source

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM); Centre for Immunology of Infectious diseases and Vaccines; Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Abstract

Effective polysaccharide (conjugate) vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W, and Y have been widely used, but serogroup B meningococci remain a major cause of severe invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) worldwide, especially in infants. Recently, a vaccine, 4CMenB (Bexsero®), containing three recombinant proteins, and outer membrane vesicles (OMV) derived from a serogroup B meningococcal strain (MenB) has been licensed in Europe and Australia and is indicated for persons aged 2 mo or older.

This article discusses what should be considered to enable a successful implementation of a broad coverage MenB vaccine in national immunization programs. Epidemiology data, vaccine characteristics including vaccine coverage, immunogenicity, post-implementation surveillance and costs are relevant aspects that should be taken into account when selecting an appropriate immunization strategy. The potential impact on strain variation and carriage, as well as monitoring vaccine effectiveness, and rare but potentially serious adverse events are points that need to be included in a post-implementation surveillance plan.

PDF

https://www.landesbioscience.com/article/26816/full_text/#load/info/all

November 17, 2013 at 10:16 am

Chronic fatigue syndrome after infectious mononucleosis in adolescents.

Pediatrics. 2009 Jul;124(1):189-93.

Katz BZ, Shiraishi Y, Mears CJ, Binns HJ, Taylor R.

Source

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Children’s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois 60614, USA. bkatz@northwestern.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The goal was to characterize prospectively the course and outcome of chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents during a 2-year period after infectious mononucleosis.

METHODS:

A total of 301 adolescents (12-18 years of age) with infectious mononucleosis were identified and screened for nonrecovery 6 months after infectious mononucleosis by using a telephone screening interview. Nonrecovered adolescents underwent a medical evaluation, with follow-up screening 12 and 24 months after infectious mononucleosis. After blind review, final diagnoses of chronic fatigue syndrome at 6, 12, and 24 months were made by using established pediatric criteria.

RESULTS:

Six, 12, and 24 months after infectious mononucleosis, 13%, 7%, and 4% of adolescents, respectively, met the criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome. Most individuals recovered with time; only 2 adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome at 24 months seemed to have recovered or had an explanation for chronic fatigue at 12 months but then were reclassified as having chronic fatigue syndrome at 24 months. All 13 adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome 24 months after infectious mononucleosis were female and, on average, they reported greater fatigue severity at 12 months. Reported use of steroid therapy during the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis did not increase the risk of developing chronic fatigue syndrome.

CONCLUSIONS:

Infectious mononucleosis may be a risk factor for chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents. Female gender and greater fatigue severity, but not reported steroid use during the acute illness, were associated with the development of chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents. Additional research is needed to determine other predictors of persistent fatigue after infectious mononucleosis.

PDF

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/124/1/189.full.pdf+html

November 17, 2013 at 10:13 am


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