Archive for November 21, 2013

Consensus Statement by GeSIDA/National AIDS Plan Secretariat on antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (Updated January 2013).

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2013 Nov;31(9):602.e1-602.e98.

Article in Spanish

Panel de expertos de GeSIDA y Plan Nacional sobre el Sida.



This consensus document is an update of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) guidelines for HIV-1 infected adult patients.


To formulate these recommendations a panel composed of members of the GeSIDA/National AIDS Plan Secretariat (Grupo de Estudio de Sida and the Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) reviewed the efficacy and safety advances in clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals (PubMed and Embase) or presented in medical scientific meetings. The strength of the recommendations and the evidence which support them are based on a modification of the criteria of Infectious Diseases Society of America.


cART is recommended in patients with symptoms of HIV infection, in pregnant women, in serodiscordant couples with high risk of transmission, in hepatitisB co-infection requiring treatment, and in HIV nephropathy. cART is recommended in asymptomatic patients if CD4 is <500cells/μl. If CD4 are >500cells/μl cART should be considered in the case of chronic hepatitisC, cirrhosis, high cardiovascular risk, plasma viral load >100.000 copies/ml, proportion of CD4 cells <14%, neurocognitive deficits, and in people aged >55years. The objective of cART is to achieve an undetectable viral load. The first cART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) nucleoside analogs and a third drug (a non-analog RTI, a ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor, or an integrase inhibitor). The panel has consensually selected some drug combinations, for the first cART and specific criteria for cART in acute HIV infection, in tuberculosis and other HIV related opportunistic infections, for the women and in pregnancy, in hepatitisB or C co-infection, in HIV-2 infection, and in post-exposure prophylaxis.


These new guidelines update previous recommendations related to first cART (when to begin and what drugs should be used), how to monitor, and what to do in case of viral failure or adverse drug reactions. cART specific criteria in comorbid patients and special situations are similarly updated.



November 21, 2013 at 2:56 pm

Lower urinary tract symptoms – current management in older men.

Aust Fam Physician. 2011 Oct;40(10):758-67.

Arianayagam M, Arianayagam R, Rashid P.


Department of Urology, The University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida, USA.



Lower urinary tract symptoms are a common problem in men and the incidence of these symptoms increases with age.


This article provides an update on the evaluation and treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in older men. In particular, we describe current nomenclature, diagnosis, the International Prostate Symptom Score, and currently available medical and surgical treatments as well as indications for referral to a urologist.


Lower urinary tract symptoms may be divided into voiding and storage, and men may present with a combination of the two symptom groups. Voiding symptoms include weak stream, hesitancy, and incomplete emptying or straining and are usually due to enlargement of the prostate gland. Storage symptoms include frequency, urgency and nocturia and may be due to detrusor overactivity.

In elderly men who present with lower urinary tract symptoms, indications for early referral to a urologist include haematuria, recurrent infections, bladder stones, urinary retention and renal impairment. In uncomplicated cases, medical therapy can be instituted in the primary care setting. Options for medical therapy include alpha blockers to relax the smooth muscle of the prostate, 5 alpha reductase inhibitors to shrink the prostate, and antimuscarinics to relax the bladder.

The International Prostate Symptom Score is beneficial in assessing symptoms and response to treatment. If symptoms progress despite medical therapy or the patient is unable to tolerate medical therapy, urological referral is warranted.


November 21, 2013 at 9:31 am

Indications, efficacy, and safety of intranasal corticosteriods in rhinosinusitis.

World Allergy Organ J. 2012 Jan;5(Suppl 1):S14-7.

Potter PC, Pawankar R.


Allergy Diagnostic and Clinical Research Unit, University of Cape Town, South Africa.


Rhinosinusitis is a significant health problem, causing significant morbidity and resulting in considerable financial cost. Some patients suffer persistent or recurrent symptoms despite receiving optimal medical and surgical treatment. Rhinosinusitis can be acute or chronic, acute often due to viral or bacterial infections and chronic which is classified into chronic with nasal polyposids or chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyposis. The disease affects the quality of life significantly and presents a significant burden on health costs globally. The anatomical linkage of the nose with the paranasal sinuses facilitates a common pathology in both organs.

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has heterogeneous origins, including viruses, bacteria, fungal infections, anatomical abnormalities, polyposis, and aspirin sensitivity. Other conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus acquired immunodeficiency and cystic fibrosis may also be predisposing factors. Nasal polyposis is often associated with increased numbers of Th2 lymphocytes, fibroblasts, goblet cells, mast cells, and eosinophils, with upregulation of IL-13 and the release of specific IgE to staphylococcal enterotoxins.

There is recent evidence that antibiotic treatment may not be as effective as higher doses of intranasal steroids in acute uncomplicated rhinosinusitis, especially in those with allergic disease. The broad inflammatory basis of the pathology of CRS also reveals a cellular infiltrate theoretically suppressed by intranasal corticosteroids. This has been confirmed in recent clinical studies of CRS with or without polyps. A treatment approach based on such studies reported in the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis guidelines and a guideline summary are presented.

The current review represents the proceedings of a session (3 talks) by the authors at the first Middle East-Asia Allergy, Asthma, Immunology Congress in 2009.


November 21, 2013 at 9:29 am

Crofelemer for the treatment of chronic diarrhea in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2013 Jul 15;5:153-62.

Patel TS, Crutchley RD, Tucker AM, Cottreau J, Garey KW.


Department of Clinical Sciences and Administration, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA.


Diarrhea is a common comorbidity present in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) who are treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. With a multifactorial etiology, this diarrhea often becomes difficult to manage. In addition, some antiretrovirals are associated with chronic diarrhea, which potentially creates an adherence barrier to antiretrovirals and may ultimately affect treatment outcomes and future therapeutic options for HIV. A predominant type of diarrhea that develops in HIV patients has secretory characteristics, including increased secretion of chloride ions and water into the intestinal lumen. One proposed mechanism that may lead to this type of secretory diarrhea is explained by the activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and calcium-activated chloride channels. Crofelemer is a novel antidiarrheal agent that works by inhibiting both of these channels. The efficacy and safety of crofelemer has been evaluated in clinical trials for various types of secretory diarrhea, including cholera-related and acute infectious diarrhea.

More recently, crofelemer was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the symptomatic relief of noninfectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy. Results from the ADVENT trial showed that crofelemer reduced symptoms of secretory diarrhea in HIV/AIDS patients. Because crofelemer is not systemically absorbed, this agent is well tolerated by patients, and in clinical trials it has been associated with minimal adverse events. Crofelemer has a unique mechanism of action, which may offer a more reliable treatment option for HIV patients who experience chronic secretory diarrhea from antiretroviral therapy.


November 21, 2013 at 9:27 am

An Increasing Prominent Disease of Klebsiella pneumoniae Liver Abscess: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2013;2013:258514.

Liu Y, Wang JY, Jiang W.


Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Xuhui, Shanghai 200032, China.


Background. During the past two decades, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) had surpassed Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the predominant isolate from patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) in Asian countries, the United States, and Europe, and it tended to spread globally. Since the clinical symptom is atypical, the accurate and effective diagnosis and treatment of K. pneumoniae liver abscesses (KLAs) are very necessary.

Methods. Here, we have comprehensively clarified the epidemiology and pathogenesis of KLA, put emphases on the clinical presentations especially the characteristic radiographic findings of KLA, and thoroughly elucidated the most effective antibiotic strategy of KLA.

Results. K1 serotype is strongly associated with KLA especially in diabetic patients. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) were two main diagnostic methods of KLA in the past. Most of KLAs have solitary, septal lobular abscesses in the right lobe of liver, and they are mainly monomicrobial. Broad-spectrum antibiotics combined with the US-guided percutaneous drainage of liver abscesses can increase their survival rates, but surgical intervention still has its irreplaceable position.

Conclusion. The imaging features contribute to the early diagnosis, and the percutaneous intervention combined with an aminoglycoside plus either an extended-spectrum betalactam or a second- or third-generation cephalosporin is a timely and effective treatment of KLA.


November 21, 2013 at 9:24 am


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