Archive for June 2, 2014

Bacteraemia due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) in cancer patients: clinical features, risk factors, molecular epidemiology and outcome

J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2010) 65(2): 333-341

PDF

http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/65/2/333.full.pdf+html

June 2, 2014 at 3:46 pm

Two-stage revision for prosthetic joint infection: predictors of outcome and the role of reimplantation microbiology

J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2010) 65(3): 569-575

PDF

http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/65/3/569.full.pdf+html

June 2, 2014 at 3:43 pm

Antibiotic therapy of pneumonia in the obese patient – dosing and delivery

Current Opinion in Infect. Dis April 2014  V.27  N.2 P.165-173

Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.a,b; Al Harbi, Shmylan A.c,d; Arabi, Yaseen M.a,b

aIntensive Care Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City – Riyadh

bCollege of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences

cMedical Surgical Intensive Care Unit, King Abdulaziz Medical City – Riyadh

dCollege of Pharmacy, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences

Correspondence to Yaseen M. Arabi, MD, FCCP, FCCM, Chairman, Intensive Care Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Associate Professor, College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Mail code 1425, PO Box 22490, Riyadh, 11426, Saudi Arabia. Tel: +966 (11) 8011111 ext 18855/18877; fax: +966 (11) 8011111 X18880; e-mail: yaseenarabi@yahoo.com

Purpose of review

Obesity has been shown to be associated with antibiotic underdosing and treatment failure.

This article reviews the recent literature on antibiotic dosing in obese patients with pneumonia.

Recent findings

Obesity is associated with several alterations in antibiotic pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, including increases in the antibiotic volume of distribution and clearance. These alterations necessitate changes in the dosing of certain antibiotics.

However, data on antibiotic dosing for pneumonia in obese patients are limited and come mainly from observational studies. Additionally, dosing recommendations are often extrapolated from healthy obese volunteers and from the studies of antibiotics given for other indications.

Summary

Recognizing obesity-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic alterations is important in treating obese patients with pneumonia.

Studies that evaluate such alterations and assess the impact of antibiotic dosing and delivery on the clinical outcomes of this patient population are needed.

FULL TEXT

http://journals.lww.com/co-infectiousdiseases/Fulltext/2014/04000/Antibiotic_therapy_of_pneumonia_in_the_obese.9.aspx

PDF (CLIC on PDF)

 

June 2, 2014 at 3:42 pm

The neonatal bowel microbiome in health and infection

Current Opinion in Infect. Dis June 2014  V.27  N.3 P.236-243

Berrington, Janet E.a; Stewart, Christopher J.b; Cummings, Stephen P.b; Embleton, Nicholas D.a

aNewcastle Neonatal Service, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Newcastle University

bFaculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Northumbria, Newcastle, UK

Correspondence to Janet Elizabeth Berrington, Newcastle Neonatal Service, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle, NE1 4LP, UK. Tel: +44 191 2825197; fax: +44 191 2825048; e-mail: j.e.berrington@ncl.ac.uk

Purpose of review

In newborns, interactions between the host and the microbiome operate synergistically, modulating host immune function and shaping the microbiome. Next generation molecular sequencing methodologies in tandem with modeling complex communities allow insights into the role of the microbiome in health and disease states.

Infection-related disease states in which dysbiosis is integral include late-onset sepsis (LOS) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which still cause deaths and morbidity. Understanding microbiomic interactions may lead to alternative prevention, monitoring or treatment strategies, and modulation of long-term health outcomes especially in the preterm population. Recent studies have advanced understanding of the microbiome in NEC and LOS.

Recent findings

Mechanisms of host–microbiome interaction have been demonstrated. Patterns of microbiomic change in association with NEC and LOS have been observed, with community changes dominated by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes appearing to precede NEC, and very early microbiomic signatures influencing LOS. Data on viral and fungal elements are emerging.

Summary

Greater understanding of the neonatal bowel microbiome may allow tailored clinical practice and therapeutic intervention.

Data handling and interpretation is challenging. Mechanistic studies of clinical interventions that affect the gut microbiome are important next steps.

FULL TEXT

http://journals.lww.com/co-infectiousdiseases/Fulltext/2014/06000/The_neonatal_bowel_microbiome_in_health_and.5.aspx

PDF (CLIC on PDF)

June 2, 2014 at 3:40 pm


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