Archive for July 11, 2014

Pregnancy and Infection

N Engl J Med June 5, 2014 V.370 P.2211-2218

REVIEW ARTICLE

Athena P. Kourtis, M.D., Ph.D., Jennifer S. Read, M.D., M.P.H., and Denise J. Jamieson, M.D., M.P.H.

From the Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (A.P.K., D.J.J.); and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco (J.S.R.).

Before the advent of antibiotic agents, pregnancy was a recognized risk factor for severe complications of pneumococcal pneumonia, including death.

The influenza pandemic of 2009 provided a more recent reminder that certain infections may disproportionately affect pregnant women.

Are pregnant women at increased risk for acquiring infections?

Are pregnant women with infection at increased risk for severe disease?

During pregnancy, several mechanical and pathophysiological changes occur (e.g., a decrease in respiratory volumes and urinary stasis due to an enlarging uterus), and immune adaptations are required to accommodate the fetus.

In this article, we review and synthesize new knowledge about the severity of and susceptibility to infections in pregnant women.

We focus on the infections for which there is evidence of increased severity or susceptibility during pregnancy that is not fully explained by mechanical or anatomical changes, and we discuss these infections in light of new findings on immunologic changes during pregnancy….

PDF

http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMra1213566

July 11, 2014 at 3:09 pm

Evidence for Camel-to-Human Transmission of MERS Coronavirus

N Engl J Med June 26, 2014 V.370 P.2499-2505

Esam I. Azhar, Ph.D., Sherif A. El-Kafrawy, Ph.D., Suha A. Farraj, M.Sc., Ahmed M. Hassan, M.Sc., Muneera S. Al-Saeed, B.Sc., Anwar M. Hashem, Ph.D., and Tariq A. Madani, M.D.

We describe the isolation and sequencing of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) obtained from a dromedary camel and from a patient who died of laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV infection after close contact with camels that had rhinorrhea.

Nasal swabs collected from the patient and from one of his nine camels were positive for MERS-CoV RNA. In addition, MERS-CoV was isolated from the patient and the camel.

The full genome sequences of the two isolates were identical. Serologic data indicated that MERS-CoV was circulating in the camels but not in the patient before the human infection occurred.

These data suggest that this fatal case of human MERS-CoV infection was transmitted through close contact with an infected camel….

PDF

http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1401505

July 11, 2014 at 3:06 pm

Rotavirus G12 in Spain: 2004–2006

Enf Infecc y Microb Clínica Junio – Julio 2014 V.32 N.06

Rotavirus G12 en España: 2004–2006

Gustavo Cilla a, , Milagrosa Montes a, , Ainara Arana ab,

a Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Donostia-Instituto Biodonostia, San Sebastián, Spain

b Becaria predoctoral de Formación de Personal Investigador (Gobierno Vasco; beca n° PRE_2013_2_319), Spain

To the Editor,

We have carefully read the interesting article by Sánchez-Fauquier et al. and agree that surveillance of the rotavirus genotypes that cause acute gastroenteritis would be of great interest for Public Health.

Because a rotavirus vaccine is available on the market and has recently been licensed in several countries, surveillance of circulating rotavirus genotypes and strains would now be particularly opportune. Surveillance would allow us to determine whether changes are occurring or not in the genotypes that cause winter epidemics and to study their possible association with vaccines.

Examples of such changes are replacement of the currently predominant genotypes (G1–G4 and G9) by others that, at the present moment, are considered unusual, or the spread of new strains due to genetic recombination, the development of escape mutations to vaccines, or the introduction of zoonotic strains in the human population….

PDF

http://apps.elsevier.es/watermark/ctl_servlet?_f=10&pident_articulo=90334201&pident_usuario=0&pcontactid=&pident_revista=28&ty=31&accion=L&origen=zonadelectura&web=zl.elsevier.es&lan=en&fichero=28v32n06a90334201pdf001.pdf

July 11, 2014 at 3:05 pm

Human immunodeficiency virus infection in Spain: It is time to act

Enf Infecc y Microb Clínica Junio – Julio 2014 V.32 N.06

Infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en España: es hora de actuar

Santiago Moreno a, Jorge del Romero b, Julia del Amo c,

a Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España

b Centro Sanitario Sandoval, Madrid, España

c Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, España

La situación de la epidemia de infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en España ofrece datos preocupantes.

Lejos de estar controlada, cada año se notifican entre 3.000 y 4.000 casos al Sistema de Información de Nuevos Diagnósticos de VIH, arrojando una tasa de incidencia anual que supera a la media de la Unión Europea y a la de la mayoría de los países de nuestro entorno.

Esta es una realidad que no puede ignorarse y sobre la que hay que actuar para limitar su extensión previniendo la aparición de nuevos casos.

Junto a la alarmante cifra de nuevos diagnósticos, se ha constatado desde hace más de 10 años un cambio en la vía de transmisión entre los nuevos diagnósticos del VIH.

En nuestro país, el uso de jeringuillas y agujas contaminadas ha sido reemplazado por las relaciones sexuales sin protección. En particular, la transmisión entre hombres que mantienen sexo con hombres (HSH) ha ido aumentando progresivamente hasta suponer en la actualidad más de la mitad de los nuevos diagnósticos…

PDF

http://apps.elsevier.es/watermark/ctl_servlet?_f=10&pident_articulo=90334183&pident_usuario=0&pcontactid=&pident_revista=28&ty=13&accion=L&origen=zonadelectura&web=zl.elsevier.es&lan=es&fichero=28v32n06a90334183pdf001.pdf

 

July 11, 2014 at 3:03 pm


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