Archive for July 23, 2014

Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones por Chlamydia spp. y especies relacionadas

Enf Infecc y Microb Clínica Junio – Julio 2014 V.32 N.06

REVISION

Microbiological diagnosis of infections due to Chlamydia spp. and related species

Mario Rodríguez-Domínguez a, Sara Sanbonmatsu b, Jesús Salinas c, Roberto Alonso d, José Gutiérrez be, Juan Carlos Galán af,

a Servicio de Microbiología y CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria (IRYCIS), Madrid, España

b Área de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, España

c Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, Murcia, España

d Servicio de Microbiología y Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, España

e Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, Granada, España

f Unidad de Resistencia a Antibióticos y Virulencia Bacteriana (RYC-CSIC), Madrid, España

Hasta fechas muy recientes eran muy pocos los genomas de Chlamydia trachomatis disponibles, a pesar de su importancia en salud pública. Actualmente se están secuenciando 66 genomas completos de C. trachomatis.

Esta revolución genómica está permitiendo comprender su biología, mejorar la sensibilidad y especificidad en el diagnóstico o desarrollar herramientas epidemiológicas no solo de C. trachomatis sino también de especies relacionadas, como C. pneumoniae o C. psittaci.

El diagnóstico basado en cultivo celular, serología o microinmunofluorescencia está siendo progresivamente sustituido por técnicas de amplificación de ácidos nucleicos, al superarse los inconvenientes de escaso rendimiento o reacciones cruzadas y mejorar la estandarización entre laboratorios.

Por otra parte, el desarrollo de técnicas de tipificación (MLST y VNTR) aplicadas a Chlamydiae ha aumentado el conocimiento de la epidemiología local y global aportando información sobre cómo esas bacterias evolucionan, causan brotes o adquieren mecanismos de resistencia.

Esta revisión se centra en los grandes avances alcanzados en el conocimiento de las diferentes especies de Chlamydia, en parte debido a la innovación tecnológica aplicada a la genómica como una aproximación para explicar la revolución que, tanto en el diagnóstico como en su epidemiología, se ha observado en este grupo de bacterias en los últimos años…..

PDF

http://apps.elsevier.es/watermark/ctl_servlet?_f=10&pident_articulo=90334192&pident_usuario=0&pcontactid=&pident_revista=28&ty=22&accion=L&origen=zonadelectura&web=zl.elsevier.es&lan=es&fichero=28v32n06a90334192pdf001.pdf

 

July 23, 2014 at 7:52 pm

Human adenovirus – Viral pathogen with increasing importance.

Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2014 Mar;4(1):26-33.

Ghebremedhin B.

Abstract

The aim of this review is to describe the biology of human adenovirus (HAdV), the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adenoviral epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and to present a practical update on its diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis.

There are two well-defined adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis clinical syndromes: epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) and pharyngoconjunctival fever (PCF), which are caused by different HAdV serotypes. The exact incidence of adenoviral conjunctivitis is still poorly known. However, cases are more frequent during warmer months.

The virus is endemic in the general population, and frequently causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients, especially the pediatric patients. Contagion is possible through direct contact or fomites, and the virus is extremely resistant to different physical and chemical agents.

The clinical signs or symptoms of conjunctival infection are similar to any other conjunctivitis, with a higher incidence of pseudomembranes. In the cornea, adenoviral infection may lead to keratitis nummularis.

Diagnosis is mainly clinical, but its etiology can be confirmed using cell cultures, antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction or immunochromatography. Multiple treatments have been tried for this disease, but none of them seem to be completely effective. Prevention is the most reliable and recommended strategy to control this contagious infection.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955829/pdf/EuJMI-04-026.pdf

July 23, 2014 at 7:47 pm

Postoperative endophthalmitis.

Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Feb 15;38(4):542-6.

Hanscom TA.

Author information

Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California-Los Angeles School of Medicine, and Saint John’s Hospital, Santa Monica, California, USA. retinalsurg@earthlink.net

Abstract

Postoperative endophthalmitis remains a serious clinical problem in ophthalmology, with an incidence of approximately 0.5%. Prognosis is largely determined by the virulence of the offending organism.

The Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study (EVS) was a prospective, randomized trial comparing various diagnostic and treatment modalities in cases of endophthalmitis that followed cataract surgery. The EVS found that vitrectomy was only beneficial for patients presenting with very poor visual acuity and that intravenous antibiotic treatments had no additional benefit, compared with intravitreal antibiotic therapy alone.

However, weaknesses of the EVS leave these conclusions open to modification in the future. Preoperative application of povidone-iodine preparation to the skin and conjunctiva is the only proven endophthalmitis prophylaxis.

Endophthalmitis may be chronic and may follow glaucoma surgery and intravitreal injection of gas and drugs. The EVS did not study these issues, although they are associated with specific features that may require alterations in patient management.

PDF

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/38/4/542.full.pdf+html

July 23, 2014 at 7:44 pm


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