Use of In Vitro Vancomycin Testing Results To Predict Susceptibility to Oritavancin, a New Long-Acting Lipoglycopeptide
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy April 2015 V.59 N.4 P.2405-2409
Ronald N. Jones, John D. Turnidge, Greg Moeck, Francis F. Arhin, and Rodrigo E. Mendes
aJMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA
bUniversity of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
cThe Medicines Company, Ville Saint Laurent, Quebec, Canada
Oritavancin is a recently approved lipoglycopeptide antimicrobial agent with activity against Gram-positive pathogens. Its extended serum elimination half-life and concentration-dependent killing enable single-dose treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.
At the time of regulatory approval, new agents, including oritavancin, are not offered in the most widely used susceptibility testing devices and therefore may require application of surrogate testing using a related antimicrobial to infer susceptibility.
To evaluate vancomycin as a predictive susceptibility marker for oritavancin, 26,993 recent Gram-positive organisms from U.S. and European hospitals were tested using reference MIC methods. Organisms included Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), beta-hemolytic streptococci (BHS), viridans group streptococci (VGS), and enterococci (ENT).
These five major pathogen groups were analyzed by comparing results with FDA-approved susceptible breakpoints for both drugs, as well as those suggested by epidemiological cutoff values and supported by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses.
Vancomycin susceptibility was highly accurate (98.1 to 100.0%) as a surrogate for oritavancin susceptibility among the indicated pathogen species.
Furthermore, direct MIC comparisons showed high oritavancin potencies, with vancomycin/oritavancin MIC90 results of 1/0.06, 2/0.06, 0.5/0.12,1/0.06, and >16/0.06 μg/ml for S. aureus, CoNS, BHS, VGS, and ENT, respectively.
In conclusion, vancomycin demonstrated acceptable accuracy as a surrogate marker for predicting oritavancin susceptibility when tested against the indicated pathogens.
In contrast, 93.3% of vancomycin-nonsusceptible enterococci had oritavancin MIC values of ≤0.12 μg/ml, indicating a poor predictive value of vancomycin for oritavancin resistance against these organisms.
Until commercial oritavancin susceptibility testing devices are readily available, isolates that when tested show vancomycin susceptibility can be inferred to be susceptible to oritavancin by using FDA-approved breakpoints.