Archive for June, 2015

Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones asociadas a dispositivos biomédicos EIMC 46 pags

Enf Infecc & Microbiol. Clínica FEB 2015

PDF

http://www.seimc.org/contenidos/documentoscientificos/procedimientosmicrobiologia/seimc-procedimientomicrobiologia52.pdf

June 27, 2015 at 11:34 am

Epstein-barr virus-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: hematologic emergency in the critical care setting.

Case Rep Hematol. 2015;2015:491567.

Hashemi-Sadraei N1, Vejpongsa P1, Baljevic M2, Chen L3, Idowu M1.

1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

2Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

3Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Abstract

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and potential life-threatening clinical syndrome that results from uncontrolled activation of the immune system.

Secondary HLH, more commonly observed in adult patients, is seen in the context of underlying triggering conditions. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been recognized as the leading infectious cause and is associated with a poor outcome.

As clinical and laboratory features of HLH could overlap with septic shock syndrome in most patients, the diagnosis of HLH, especially in adults, is the most challenging aspect of the disease that results in delayed recognition and treatment of rapidly progressive multiorgan system failure.

We report a case of Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a patient who presented with signs of septic shock syndrome and we review the literature on the topic

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4338404/pdf/CRIHEM2015-491567.pdf

June 27, 2015 at 11:32 am

Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphomas.

Semin Oncol. 2015 Apr;42(2):291-303.

Grywalska E1, Rolinski J2.

1Department of Clinical Immunology and Immunotherapy, Medical University of Lublin, Poland.

2Department of Clinical Immunology and Immunotherapy, Medical University of Lublin, Poland. Electronic address: ewelina.grywalska@gmail.com

Abstract

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the first identified human virus with a proven association with the pathogenesis of cancer. To maintain the integrity of the viral genome and to “get out” of the control of the host immune system, in the phase of the latent infection EBV shows the expression of several genes, including genes for six nuclear antigens, three latent membrane proteins, two short non-coding RNAs, and BamHI-A rightward transcripts.

The different patterns of expression of these latent genes determine the occurrence of different types of latency in the pathogenesis of particular malignancies. One of the most important features of EBV is its ability to infect various cell types and the consequent variety of diseases.

It has been shown that in humans, EBV infection may lead to the development of cancers, including those derived from hematopoietic cells.

Although cases of T-cell and epithelial cell infections have been documented, EBV is characterized mainly by tropism for B lymphocytes, and under certain conditions their infection may result in transformation to B-cell lymphoma.

This article discusses the mechanisms leading to the development of EBV-dependent lymphomas, and briefly characterizes these diseases.

PDF

http://www.seminoncol.org/article/S0093-7754(14)00301-7/pdf

June 27, 2015 at 11:30 am

World Health Organization Guidelines on Postexposure Prophylaxis for HIV: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach

Clin Infect Dis June 1, 2015 V.60 Suppl 3

PDF

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/60/suppl_3/S161.full.pdf+html

June 27, 2015 at 11:28 am

The Strategic Use of Antiretrovirals to Prevent HIV Infection: A Converging Agenda

Clin Infect Dis June 1, 2015 V.60 Suppl 3

PDF

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/60/suppl_3/S159.full.pdf+html

June 27, 2015 at 11:26 am

Human infections with Borrelia miyamotoi, Japan.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Aug;20(8):1391-3.

Sato K, Takano A, Konnai S, Nakao M, Ito T, Koyama K, Kaneko M, Ohnishi M, Kawabata H.

Abstract

We confirmed infection of 2 patients with Borrelia miyamotoi in Japan by retrospective surveillance of Lyme disease patients and detection of B. miyamotoi DNA in serum samples.

One patient also showed seroconversion for antibody against recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase of B. miyamotoi.

Indigenous relapsing fever should be considered a health concern in Japan.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4111186/pdf/13-1761.pdf

June 21, 2015 at 7:50 pm

Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ticks in Europe and the United States.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Oct;20(10):1678-82.

Crowder CD, Carolan HE, Rounds MA, Honig V, Mothes B, Haag H, Nolte O, Luft BJ, Grubhoffer L, Ecker DJ, Schutzer SE, Eshoo MW.

Abstract

Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever-related spirochete transmitted by Ixodes ticks, has been recently shown to be a human pathogen.

To characterize the prevalence of this organism in questing Ixodes ticks, we tested 2,754 ticks for a variety of tickborne pathogens by PCR and electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry.

Ticks were collected from California, New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Indiana in the United States and from Germany and the Czech Republic in Europe from 2008 through 2012. In addition, an isolate from Japan was characterized. We found 3 distinct genotypes, 1 for North America, 1 for Europe, and 1 for Japan.

We found B. miyamotoi infection in ticks in 16 of the 26 sites surveyed, with infection prevalence as high as 15.4%.

These results show the widespread distribution of the pathogen, indicating an exposure risk to humans in areas where Ixodes ticks reside.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4193165/pdf/13-1583Final.pdf

June 21, 2015 at 7:49 pm

Comparison of the Metabolic Effects of Ritonavir-Boosted Darunavir or Atazanavir Versus Raltegravir, and the Impact of Ritonavir Plasma Exposure: ACTG 5257

Clin Infect Dis June 15, 2015 V.60 N.12  P.1842-1851

Editor’s Choice

Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Lumine H. Na, Raphael J. Landovitz, Heather J. Ribaudo, Grace A. McComsey, Catherine Godfrey, Francesca Aweeka, Susan E. Cohn, Manish Sagar, Daniel R. Kuritzkes, Todd T. Brown, Kristine B. Patterson, Michael F. Para, Randi Y. Leavitt, Angelina Villasis-Keever, Bryan P. Baugh, Jeffrey L. Lennox, and Judith S. Currier for the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5257 Team

In this randomized trial, raltegravir had more of a favorable lipid profile than ritonavir-boosted atazanavir or ritonavir-boosted darunavir–based regimens.

Metabolic syndrome rates increased to the same degree for all 3 regimens.

There was no relationship between ritonavir exposure and lipid levels.

PDF

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/60/12/1842.full.pdf+html

 

June 21, 2015 at 7:47 pm

Utility of Hepatitis C Viral Load Monitoring on Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy

Clin Infect Dis June 15, 2015 V.60 N.12  P.1743-1751

Editor’s Choice

Sreetha Sidharthan, Anita Kohli, Zayani Sims, Amy Nelson, Anu Osinusi, Henry Masur, and Shyam Kottilil

During hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment with interferon-sparing direct-acting antiviral regimens, low-level quantifiable HCV RNA after completion of therapy does not preclude treatment success. Patients with detectable viremia at week 4 of treatment also have high sustained virologic response rates.

PDF

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/60/12/1743.full.pdf+html

June 21, 2015 at 7:45 pm

Burden of bacterial resistance among neonatal infections in low income countries: how convincing is the epidemiological evidence?

BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 15;15:127.

Huynh BT1, Padget M2, Garin B3, Herindrainy P4, Kermorvant-Duchemin E5, Watier L6, Guillemot D7, Delarocque-Astagneau E8.

Author information

1Pharmacoepidemiology and Infectious diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, UVSQ, EA 4499, Versailles, INSERM Unit 657, 25,28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724, Paris, France. bich-tram.huynh@pasteur.fr.

2Pharmacoepidemiology and Infectious diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, UVSQ, EA 4499, Versailles, INSERM Unit 657, 25,28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724, Paris, France. Michael.padget@pasteur.fr.

3Experimental Bacteriology Laboratory, Institut Pasteur, Antananarivo, Madagascar. bgarin@pasteur.mg.

4Epidemiology Unit Institut Pasteur, Antananarivo, Madagascar. perlinot@pasteur.mg.

5Necker Hospital, Department of Neonatal medicine, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France. elsa.kermorvant@nck.aphp.fr.

6Pharmacoepidemiology and Infectious diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, UVSQ, EA 4499, Versailles, INSERM Unit 657 Paris, France AP-HP, Hospital Raymond-Poincaré, Garches, France. laurence.watier@inserm.fr .

7Pharmacoepidemiology and Infectious diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, UVSQ, EA 4499, Versailles, INSERM Unit 657 Paris, France AP-HP, Hospital Raymond-Poincaré, Garches, France. didier.guillemot@pasteur.f .

8Pharmacoepidemiology and Infectious diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, UVSQ, EA 4499, Versailles, INSERM Unit 657, 25,28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724, Paris, France. elisabeth.delarocque-astagne@pasteur.fr

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Antibiotic resistance is a threat in developing countries (DCs) because of the high burden of bacterial disease and the presence of risk factors for its emergence and spread. This threat is of particular concern for neonates in DCs where over one-third of neonatal deaths may be attributable to severe infections and factors such as malnutrition and HIV infection may increase the risk of death. Additional, undocumented deaths due to severe infection may also occur due to the high frequency of at-home births in DCs.

METHODS:

We conducted a systematic review of studies published after 2000 on community-acquired invasive bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance among neonates in DCs. Twenty-one articles met all inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis.

RESULTS:

Ninety percent of studies recruited participants at large or university hospitals. The majority of studies were conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa (n=10) and the Indian subcontinent (n=8). Neonatal infection incidence ranged from 2.9 (95% CI 1.9-4.2) to 24 (95% CI 21.8-25.7) for 1000 live births. The three most common bacterial isolates in neonatal sepsis were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella. Information on antibiotic resistance was sparse and often relied on few isolates. The majority of resistance studies were conducted prior to 2008. No conclusions could be drawn on Enterobacteriaceae resistance to third generation cephalosporins or methicillin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus.

CONCLUSIONS:

Available data were found insufficient to draw a true, recent, and accurate picture of antibiotic resistance in DCs among severe bacterial infection in neonates, particularly at the community level. Existing neonatal sepsis treatment guidelines may no longer be appropriate, and these data are needed as the basis for updated guidelines. Reliable microbiological and epidemiological data at the community level are needed in DCs to combat the global challenge of antibiotic resistance especially among neonates among whom the burden is greatest.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4364576/pdf/12879_2015_Article_843.pdf

June 21, 2015 at 7:42 pm

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