Postexposure Prophylactic Effect of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-Active Antiretroviral Therapy against HBV Infection
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. February 2015 59:1292-1298
Tsunamasa Watanabe, Susumu Hamada-Tsutsumi, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Junji Imamura, Wataru Sugiura, and Yasuhito Tanaka
aDepartment of Virology and Liver Unit, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan
bDepartment of Infectious Diseases and Immunology Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Japan
Retrospective study indicates that hepatitis B virus (HBV)-active nucleoside (nucleotide) analogues (NAs) used for antiretroviral therapy reduce the incidence of acute HBV infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.
Learning from HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), we explored the possibility of using NAs in PEP following HBV exposure, if preexposure prophylaxis is feasible clinically.
Using freshly isolated primary human hepatocytes cultured in vitro, we analyzed the effect of HBV-active tenofovir and lamivudine in primary HBV infection and also the effect of treatment with these NAs after HBV infection. HBV-active NAs applied from 24 h before inoculation could not prevent the secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen into the culture medium, and cessation of the NAs after inoculation allowed the cells to establish an apparent HBV infection.
In contrast, hepatitis B immune globulin was able to prevent HBV infection completely. NA treatment before infection, however, can control the spread of HBV infection, as detected by immunohistochemistry.
Practically, starting NA treatment within 2 days of primary HBV infection inhibited viral spread effectively, as well as preexposure treatment. We demonstrated that preexposure NA treatment was not able to prevent the acquisition of HBV infection but prevented viral spread by suppressing the production of mature progeny HBV virions.
The effect of postexposure treatment within 2 days was similar to the effect of preexposure treatment, suggesting the possibility of HBV PEP using HBV-active NAs in HIV- and HBV-susceptible high-risk groups.
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