Noninvasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes Recovered from Hospitalized Adult Patients in the United States in 2009 to 2012
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Sept 2015 V.59 N.9 P.5595-5601
Rodrigo E. Mendes, Rosalind C. Hollingsworth, Andrew Costello, Ronald N. Jones, Raul E. Isturiz, Dial Hewlett Jr., and David J. Farrell
aJMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA
bPfizer Inc., Specialty Care—Medicines Development Group, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, USA
This study was conducted to determine the serotype distribution and trends over time of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains associated with noninvasive infections among adult patients ≥18 years of age in the United States (2009 to 2012). A total of 2,927 S. pneumoniae isolates recovered from patients presenting with respiratory infections and obtained mainly (87.0%) from lower respiratory tract specimens (sputum) were included.
The levels of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) serotypes remained stable over the 4-year study period (4.6% to 5.5%; P = 0.953).
Overall, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes were identified in 32.7% of samples, declining from 33.7% to 35.5% in 2009 to 2011 to 28.2% in 2012 (P = 0.007), with a significant decrease in the levels of serotypes 7F (P = 0.013) and 6A (P = 0.010). The levels of 19A remained constant (15.8% to 17.1%) during 2009 to 2011, dropping to 12.2% in 2012 (P = 0.089).
The prevalence of serotypes associated with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), but not PCV13, remained generally stable; however, the prevalence of serotypes 15B and 15C (15B/15C) increased from 2.7% to 6.3% (P = 0.010).
The proportion of nonvaccine serotypes increased gradually during the study period (P = 0.044), particularly for serotype 35B (from 3.6% in 2009 to 8.2% in 2012; P = 0.001). Nonsusceptibility rates for penicillin (susceptible breakpoint, ≤2 μg/ml) and clindamycin against PCV7 serotypes decreased over the period.
These results suggest the emergence of indirect effects following introduction of PCV13 for infants and young children; continued surveillance is needed to assess the burden of PCV13 serotypes in the adult population after the implementation of age-based recommendations in the United States.