Editor’s Choice: Inflammation in Chronic HIV Infection: What Can We Do?
Journal of Infect Dis August 1, 2015 V.212 N.3 P.339-342
Kristine M. Erlandson and Thomas B. Campbell
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado, Aurora
Correspondence: Kristine M. Erlandson, MD, MS, 12700 E 19th Ave, Mail Stop B168, Aurora, CO 80045 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically improved the life expectancy of persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
However, even with long-term, effective ART, HIV-infected persons have persistent, low-grade inflammation and immune activation  that are strongly associated with a heightened risk for cardiovascular disease [2–4], osteoporosis , anemia , physical function impairments and frailty , among other non-AIDS–defining events and mortality [8, 9].
For example, a recent analysis in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study found that levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), a marker of monocyte activation, were significantly higher in HIV-infected men, compared with HIV-uninfected men, but that they did not differ between HIV-infected men with and those without effective ART and changed very little in the years following ART initiation .
Given the long-term consequences of chronic inflammation, there is an urgent need to better understand the causes and develop interventions that attenuate the effects of inflammation and immune activation in people living with HIV infection.
The study by Hileman et al in this issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases offers insight into how the choice of the initial antiretroviral regimen affects subsequent changes in inflammation and immune activation markers…