Quantitative proteomic view associated with resistance to clinically important antibiotics in Gram-positive bacteria: a systematic review.
Front Microbiol. 2015 Aug 11;6:828.
Lee CR1, Lee JH1, Park KS1, Jeong BC1, Lee SH1.
1National Leading Research Laboratory of Drug Resistance Proteomics, Department of Biological Sciences, Myongji University Yongin, South Korea.
The increase of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) poses a worldwide and serious health threat.
Although new antibiotics, such as daptomycin and linezolid, have been developed for the treatment of infections of Gram-positive pathogens, the emergence of daptomycin-resistant and linezolid-resistant strains during therapy has now increased clinical treatment failures.
In the past few years, studies using quantitative proteomic methods have provided a considerable progress in understanding antibiotic resistance mechanisms.
In this review, to understand the resistance mechanisms to four clinically important antibiotics (methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin) used in the treatment of Gram-positive pathogens, we summarize recent advances in studies on resistance mechanisms using quantitative proteomic methods, and also examine proteins playing an important role in the bacterial mechanisms of resistance to the four antibiotics.
Proteomic researches can identify proteins whose expression levels are changed in the resistance mechanism to only one antibiotic, such as LiaH in daptomycin resistance and PrsA in vancomycin resistance, and many proteins simultaneously involved in resistance mechanisms to various antibiotics.
Most of resistance-related proteins, which are simultaneously associated with resistance mechanisms to several antibiotics, play important roles in regulating bacterial envelope biogenesis, or compensating for the fitness cost of antibiotic resistance.
Therefore, proteomic data confirm that antibiotic resistance requires the fitness cost and the bacterial envelope is an important factor in antibiotic resistance.