Archive for October, 2015

Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strain with Reduced Susceptibilities to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins

Emerging Infectious Diseases JULY 2014 V.20 N.7

Duylinh Nguyen, Severin Gose, Lina Castro, Kathleen Chung, Kyle Bernstein, Micheal Samuel, Heidi Bauer, and Mark Pandori

Author affiliations: San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, California, USA (D. Nguyen, S. Gose, L. Castro, K. Chung, K. Bernstein, M. Pandori); California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA (M. Samuel, H. Bauer)

The spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is an increasing public health threat.

Using Etest and multiantigen sequence typing, we detected sequence type 1407, which is associated with reduced susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, in 4 major populated regions in California, USA, in 2012.


October 31, 2015 at 5:05 pm

Carbapenemase-producing Bacteria in Patients Hospitalized Abroad, France

Emerging Infectious Diseases JULY 2014 V.20 N.7


To the Editor: The emergence and rapid worldwide dissemination of carbapenemase-producing bacteria (CPB), especially carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), have prompted public health authorities to reconsider prevention strategies to control the spread of these organisms (1–5).

In France, national guidelines recommend systematic screening for commensal CPE and glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) in all patients admitted to hospitals who have been hospitalized in other countries during the preceding 12 months (6,7) (repatriated patients), independently of whether transfer was direct from hospital to hospital (DT) or not (NDT)…..


October 31, 2015 at 5:04 pm

Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food, 2014

Emerging Infectious Diseases JULY 2014 V.20 N.7


To the Editor: Carbapenem antimicrobial drugs are the line of defense against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections. The global emergence of carbapenemase-producing organisms is a public health emergency because these enzymes confer resistance to nearly all β-lactam drugs and are often associated with multidrug or pandrug resistance (1)….


October 31, 2015 at 5:02 pm

Epidemiology and Characteristics of Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Infect Chemother. 2015 Jun;47(2):81-97.

Hong DJ1, Bae IK2, Jang IH3, Jeong SH1, Kang HK2, Lee K1.

Author information

1Department of Laboratory Medicine and Research Institute of Bacterial Resistance, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

2Department of Dental Hygiene, Silla University, Busan, Korea.

3Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Sangji University, Wonju, Korea.


Metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MPPA) is an important nosocomial pathogen that shows resistance to all β-lactam antibiotics except monobactams.

There are various types of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa including Imipenemase (IMP), Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (VIM), Sao Paulo metallo-β-lactamase (SPM), Germany imipenemase (GIM), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), Florence imipenemase (FIM).

Each MBL gene is located on specific genetic elements including integrons, transposons, plasmids, or on the chromosome, in which they carry genes encoding determinants of resistance to carbapenems and other antibiotics, conferring multidrug resistance to P. aeruginosa.

In addition, these genetic elements are transferable to other Gram-negative species, increasing the antimicrobial resistance rate and complicating the treatment of infected patients.

Therefore, it is essential to understand the epidemiology, resistance mechanism, and molecular characteristics of MPPA for infection control and prevention of a possible global health crisis. Here, we highlight the characteristics of MPPA.


October 30, 2015 at 1:12 pm

Spontaneous Clearance of the Hepatitis C Virus Among Men Who Have Sex With Men

Clin Infect Dis. (2015) 61 (9): 1381-1388

Editor’s Choice

Eric C. Seaberg, Mallory D. Witt, Lisa P. Jacobson, Roger Detels, Charles R. Rinaldo, Joseph B. Margolick, Stephen Young, John P. Phair, and Chloe L. Thio

1Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

2David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California–Los Angeles

3Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor University of California–Los Angeles, Torrance

4Department of Epidemiology, University of California–Los Angeles, School of Public Health, California

5Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

6Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

7Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico HSC, Albuquerque

8Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois

9Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

Correspondence: Eric C. Seaberg, PhD, MPH, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St, Rm E-7634, Baltimore, MD 21205 (


The probability of spontaneous hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance ranges from 11% to 49%. Our previous cross-sectional study suggests that mode of acquisition explains some of this heterogeneity. We performed this prospective study to determine factors associated with spontaneous HCV clearance among men who have sex with men (MSM).


A mixture-cure model was used to evaluate the probability of spontaneous HCV clearance among 101 MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study with acute HCV infection between 1984 and 2012.


Spontaneous HCV clearance occurred in 46% of MSM (49% in non-injection drug users [IDUs] and 23% in IDUs). In the multivariable analysis, age <30 years (clearance ratio [CR] = 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53–3.87) and being human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) uninfected (CR = 2.97; 95% CI, 1.98–4.46) were independently associated with spontaneous clearance. Among men aged ≥30 years, being HIV uninfected, not having unprotected anal intercourse, older age, and being on highly active antiretroviral therapy were independently associated with higher clearance. The interferon lambda rs12979860 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was not associated with spontaneous clearance among the 88 MSM who were not active IDUs (CR = 0.74; 95% CI, .46–1.21 for CC vs CT/TT genotype).


The high probability of spontaneous HCV clearance together with the lack of an association between the rs12979860 SNP and spontaneous clearance among MSM who do not use injection drugs suggests that the immune mechanisms involved with a successful response to acute HCV differ by mode of virus acquisition. Understanding potential mechanistic differences could be important for HCV vaccine development.


October 29, 2015 at 2:51 pm

Leptospirosis in Humans

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2015 ; 387: 65–97.

David A. Haake and

Division of Infectious Diseases, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA,

USA. Departments of Medicine, Urology, and Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics,

The David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Paul N. Levett

Saskatchewan Disease Control Laboratory, Regina, SK, Canada

David A. Haake:; Paul N. Levett:


October 29, 2015 at 2:49 pm

Prevalence of Mupirocin Resistance Among Staphylococci, its Clinical Significance and Relationship to Clinical Use.

J Lab Physicians. 2015 Jul-Dec;7(2):103-7.

Rudresh MS1, Ravi GS1, Motagi A2, Alex AM1, Sandhya P1, Navaneeth BV1.

Author information

1Department of Microbiology, ESIC MC and PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

2Department of Microbiology, ESIC MH, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.


October 29, 2015 at 8:23 am

USA300 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United States, 2000-2013.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Nov;21(11):1973-80.

Carrel M, Perencevich EN, David MZ.


In the United States, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with the USA300 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type causes most community-associated MRSA infections and is an increasingly common cause of health care-associated MRSA infections.

USA300 probably emerged during the early 1990s. To assess the spatiotemporal diffusion of USA300 MRSA and USA100 MRSA throughout the United States, we systematically reviewed 354 articles for data on 33,543 isolates, of which 8,092 were classified as USA300 and 2,595 as USA100.

Using the biomedical literature as a proxy for USA300 prevalence among genotyped MRSA samples, we found that USA300 was isolated during 2000 in several states, including California, Texas, and midwestern states.

The geographic mean center of USA300 MRSA then shifted eastward from 2000 to 2013. Analyzing genotyping studies enabled us to track the emergence of a new, successful MRSA type in space and time across the country.


October 29, 2015 at 8:22 am

Cloxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus with high MIC to glycopeptides. Ever we use cloxacillin?

Rev Esp Quimioter. 2015 Sep;28 Suppl 1:25-9.

Article in Spanish

Morales A, Lalueza A, San Juan R, Aguado JM1.

Author information

1José María Aguado, Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas. Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.


October 29, 2015 at 8:20 am

The Control of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Blood Stream Infections in England.

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 12;2(2):ofv035.


Duerden B1, Fry C2, Johnson AP3, Wilcox MH4.

Author information

1Cardiff University Medical School , Heath Park , United Kingdom.

2Department of Health, Richmond House, London , United Kingdom.

3Department of Healthcare-Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance , Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control , Public Health England , London , United Kingdom.

4Leeds Teaching Hospitals, University of Leeds and Public Health England , United Kingdom.


October 29, 2015 at 8:19 am

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