Archive for November 20, 2015

Cloxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus with high MIC to glycopeptides. Ever we use cloxacillin?

Rev Esp Quimioter. 2015 Sep;28 Suppl 1:25-9.

[Article in Spanish]

Morales A, Lalueza A, San Juan R, Aguado JM1.

Author information

1José María Aguado, Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas. Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain. jaguadog1@gmail.com

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus infections are yet an important cause of morbidity and mortality despite of numerous effective anti-staphylococcal antibiotics available. There has been an increasing incidence of methicillin-resistant strains which might have led to a wider use of vancomycin.

This seems to ride alongside a covert progressive increase of S. aureus vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration.

In this way, the emergence of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strains and heteroresistant-VISA has raised concern for the scarcity of alternative treatment options.

Equally alarming, though fortunately less frequent, is the emergence of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus.

Ultimately, various debate issues have arisen regarding the emergence of S. aureus strains with decreased vancomycin susceptibility, within the range still considered sensitive. These strains have shown a different clinical behaviour regardless of vancomycin use, both in methicillin resistant and sensitive S. aureus.

The emergence of increasing vancomycin-resistance in S. aureus isolates, has stirred up the basis of therapeutic approach in staphylococcal infections.

There is yet much to explore to better define the impact of higher vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration in staphylococcal infections.

PDF

http://seq.es/seq/0214-3429/28/sup1/morales.pdf

 

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November 20, 2015 at 6:42 pm

Nosocomial transmission of avian influenza virus A (H7N9)

British Medical Journal NOV.15, 2015

Editorials

Marianne A B van der Sande, head of centre for epidemiology and surveillance of infectious diseases12, Wim van der Hoek, head of department for respiratory infections1

1Centre for Infectious Disease Control, RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands

2Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Since the first notification in March 2013 through to 15 October 2015, a total of 679 laboratory confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) viruses, including 275 (40%) deaths, have been reported to the World Health Organization.

These individuals have presumably contracted their infection in China directly from infected birds or their environment, particularly when visiting live poultry markets. Limited human to human transmission has been suspected in a few clusters of cases of family members.

In a linked article, Fang and colleagues report on a presumed case of nosocomial, human to human, transmission of influenza A (H7N9) between unrelated individuals.

Both patients, showing symptoms, spent time in the same hospital room, were infected with comparable strains, and—because no other common exposure was identified—the authors concluded that nosocomial infection was the most likely route of transmission….

abstract

http://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h5980

PDF

http://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/351/bmj.h5980.full.pdf

November 20, 2015 at 8:25 am


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