Archive for January 14, 2016

Ceftolozane/tazobactam: a novel antipseudomonal cephalosporin and β-lactamase-inhibitor combination.

Infect Drug Resist. 2013 Nov 29;6:215-23.

Hong MC1, Hsu DI2, Bounthavong M3.

Author information

1Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

2Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA ; Department of Pharmacy, St Joseph Hospital, Orange, CA, USA.

3Department of Pharmacy, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA ; Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Abstract

The management of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, continues to be a significant challenge to clinicians. Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a novel antibacterial and β-lactamase-inhibitor combination that has shown appreciable activity against wild-type Enterobacteriaceae and potent activity against P. aeruginosa. Moreover, ceftolozane/tazobactam has not demonstrated cross-resistance to other antimicrobial classes, particularly those affected by extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC β-lactamase, a loss in porin channels, or the overexpression of efflux pumps in P. aeruginosa. Ceftolozane/tazobactam has completed two Phase II clinical trials in complicated intra-abdominal and complicated urinary tract infections. A Phase III, multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label study has been initiated to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ceftolozane/tazobactam versus piperacillin/tazobactam for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia. A Medline search of articles from inception to May 2013 and references for selected citations was conducted. Data from abstracts presented at conferences were also appraised. This article reviews the antimicrobial, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic profile of ceftolozane/tazobactam, and discusses its potential role in therapy.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3848746/pdf/idr-6-215.pdf

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January 14, 2016 at 11:49 am

Short-term treatment of actinomycosis: two cases and a review.

BRIEF REPORT

Clinical infectious diseases Feb.1, 2004 V.38 N.3 P.444-7

Sudhakar SS, Ross JJ

Abstract

Recommendations for prolonged penicillin treatment of actinomycosis date from the early antibiotic era, when patients often presented with neglected, advanced disease and received interrupted therapy at suboptimal dosages. This report describes cases of esophageal and of cervicofacial actinomycosis treated successfully with short-term antibiotic therapy and reviews the literature. Many patients are cured with <6 months of antibiotic therapy. If short-term antibiotic treatment is attempted, the clinical and radiological response should be closely monitored. Cervicofacial actinomycosis is especially responsive to brief courses of antibiotic treatment.

PDF

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/38/3/444.full.pdf

January 14, 2016 at 11:47 am

Thoracic actinomycosis: report of a case.

Arch Argent Pediatr. 2015 Dec 1;113(6):e345-8.

Article in Spanish

Brizuela ME1, Latella A2, Sancho Cano J2, Litterio M3, Berberian G1.

Author information

1Servicio de Control Epidemiológico e Infectología, Hospital de Pediatría Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan.

2Servicio de Clínica Pediátrica, Hospital de Pediatría Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan.

3Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital de Pediatría Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.

Abstract

Actinomycosis is a disease produced by bacteria of the genus Actinomyces. The thoracic form represents 30% of the cases. Signs and symptoms are generally unspecific. A previously healthy 11 year old girl was admitted with a chest mass of a month of evolution associated with fever, hyporexia and weight loss. Thoracic actinomycosis was diagnosed with the isolation of Actinomyces meyeri in the mass drainage. She received antibiotic treatment for a year with complete resolution. Although rare, it should be taken into account as a differential diagnosis in long evolution thoracic tumor affecting the general condition. The microbiologist must be warned about the suspected diagnosis because it is difficult to find it in routinely used culture media.

PDF

http://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/aap/v113n6/v113n6a27.pdf

January 14, 2016 at 11:46 am

Treatment of cervicofacial actinomycosis: a report of 19 cases and review of literature.

Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013 Jul 1;18(4):e627-32.

Moghimi M1, Salentijn E, Debets-Ossenkop Y, Karagozoglu KH, Forouzanfar T.

Author information

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, VU University Medical Center, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherland. m.moghimi@vumc.nl

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection caused by the Actinomyces genus. Orocervicofacial actinomycosis is the most common form of the disease, seen in up to 55% of cases. All forms of actinomycosis are treated with high doses of intravenous penicillin G over two to six weeks, followed by oral penicillin V. Large studies on cervicofacial actinomycosis are lacking. Therefore proper guidelines for treatment and treatment duration are difficult to establish. The aim of this study is to establish effective treatment and treatment duration for orocervicofacial actinomycosis.

STUDY DESIGN:

A Pubmed and Embase search was performed with the focus on treatment and treatment duration for cervicofacial actinomycosis. The hospital records of all patients presenting to our department with head and neck infection from January 2000 to December 2010 were reviewed, retrospectively. The following data were collected: age, gender, clinical presentation, aetiology, duration of symptoms, microbiological findings, treatment, and duration of treatment. The treatment and treatment duration is subsequently compared to the literature.

RESULTS:

The literature search provided 12 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. All studies were retrospective in nature. Penicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid are the preferred antibiotic regimens found in the literature. Most of our patients were treated with a combination of penicillin G 12 million units/day and metronidazol 500 mg 3/day, most commonly for a duration of 1 – 4 weeks, being shorter than the 3 – 52 weeks reported in the literature.

CONCLUSION:

When actinomycosis is suspected, our review has shown that a surgical approach in combination with intravenous penicillin and metronidazol until clinical improvement is seen, followed by oral antibiotics for 2 – 4 weeks is generally efficient.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3731091/pdf/medoral-18-e627.pdf

January 14, 2016 at 11:45 am


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