Pneumococcal empyema and complicated pneumonias: global trends in incidence, prevalence, and serotype epidemiology
European J of Clinical Microb & Infec Dis June 2014 V.33 N.6 P.879-910
- A. Fletcher , H.-J., M. Syrochkina, G. Sylvester
- Pfizer, Inc., 23–25, avenue du Dr Lannelongue, 75668, Paris Cedex 14, France
- Pfizer, Inc., Yekaterinburg, Russia
- Pfizer Inc., Collegeville, PA, USA
This review evaluates the serotype epidemiology of complicated pneumococcal pneumonia (CPP) during the period 1990–2012. PubMed and EMBASE were searched using the terms “empyema”, “complicated pneumonia”, “pleural infection”, “necrotizing pneumonia”, “pleural effusion”, “parapneumonic effusion”, “pneumatocele”, or “lung abscess”; “pneumococcal” or “Streptococcus pneumoniae”; and “serotype” for studies on the epidemiology of complicated pneumonias published from January 1, 1990 to October 1, 2013.
Studies with data on incidence and serotypes were included; reviews, case reports, and conference abstracts were excluded. Of 152 papers, 84 fitted the inclusion criteria.
A few pneumococcal serotypes were predominant causes of CPP, particularly serotypes 1, 19A, 3, 14, and 7F. CPP was a more common manifestation of pneumococcal disease among older (>2 years old) than younger children.
The data support increases in both reported incidence rates and proportions of CPP in children and adults during the period 1990–2012; specific increases varied by geographic region.
The proportions of serotype 3 and, particularly in Asia, serotype 19A CPP have increased, whereas most studies show declines in serotype 14. Serotype 1 has been a predominant cause of CPP since 1990, while antibiotic resistance was infrequent among serotype 1 isolates.
The reported incidence and proportions of CPP among pneumonia cases steadily increased from 1990 to 2012. Several factors might account for these increases, including enhanced disease detection due to a higher index of suspicion, more sophisticated diagnostic assays, and changes in the prevalence of serotypes with capacity to invade the pleural space that were not targeted by the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7).
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