β-Lactamase Characterization of Gram-Negative Pathogens Recovered from Patients Enrolled in the Phase 2 Trials for Ceftazidime-Avibactam: Clinical Efficacies Analyzed against Subsets of Molecularly Characterized Isolates
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy March 2016 V.60 N.3 P.1328-1335
Rodrigo E. Mendes, Mariana Castanheira, Leanne Gasink, Gregory G. Stone, Wright W. Nichols, Robert K. Flamm, and Ronald N. Jones
aJMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA
bAstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
The correlation of the clinical efficacies of ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators (carbapenems) was evaluated against baseline Gram-negative isolates having characterized β-lactam resistance mechanisms from complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) phase 2 trials. Enterobacteriaceae displaying ceftriaxone and/or ceftazidime MICs of ≥2 μg/ml (69 isolates) and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB [three isolates]) with ceftazidime MICs of ≥16 μg/ml were characterized for their narrow- and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) content. Enterobacteriaceae (one isolate) and NF-GNB (three isolates) with imipenem/meropenem MICs of ≥2 and ≥16 μg/ml, respectively, were tested for carbapenemases. All cUTI E. coli had the lineage background investigated (ST131-like versus non-ST131-like). The primary efficacy endpoint was microbiological response (eradication) at test of cure (TOC) for cUTI and clinical response (inferred microbiological eradication) at TOC for cIAI. A total of 34.1% of baseline cUTI (36.4%) and cIAI (33.1%) pathogens met the MIC-based screening criteria (screen positive). All screen-positive cUTI pathogens were CTX-M-producing E. coli, except for one E. cloacae isolate with AmpC overexpression. The majority (66.7%) of screen-positive cIAI isolates produced CTX-M-type coupled with a diverse array of other β-lactamases. Similar favorable responses were observed with ceftazidime-avibactam (93.3%) and carbapenems (90.9%), when a non-ESBL Enterobacteriaceae isolate was recovered at the baseline visit. When an ESBL Enterobacteriaceae isolate was present, the favorable responses were 85.7% and 80.0% with ceftazidime-avibactam and carbapenems, respectively. Higher favorable responses were observed with ceftazidime-avibactam (75.0%) than with carbapenems (66.7%) when an ST131-like E. coli isolate was recovered at baseline, as when a non-ST131-like isolate was present (93.8% versus 86.7%, respectively). The efficacy of ceftazidime-avibactam was similar to that of carbapenems for treatment of cUTI and cIAI caused by ESBL organisms.