Archive for March 17, 2016

Hypervirulent emm59 Clone in Invasive Group A Streptococcus Outbreak, Southwestern United States

Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal APRIL 2016 V.22 N.4

David M. Engelthaler1Comments to Author , Michael Valentine1, Jolene Bowers, Jennifer Pistole, Elizabeth M. Driebe, Joel Terriquez, Linus Nienstadt, Mark Carroll, Mare Schumacher, Mary Ellen Ormsby, Shane Brady, Eugene Livar, Del Yazzie, Victor Waddell, Marie Peoples, Kenneth Komatsu, and Paul Keim

Author affiliations: Translational Genomics Research Institute, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA (D. Engelthaler, M. Valentine, J. Bowers, E.M. Driebe, P. Keim); Arizona Department of Health Services, Phoenix, Arizona, USA (J. Pistole, S. Brady, E. Livar, V. Waddell, K. Komatsu); Northern Arizona Healthcare, Flagstaff (J. Terriquez, L. Nienstadt, M. Carroll); Coconino County Public Health Services District, Flagstaff (M. Schumacher, M.E. Ormsby, M. Peoples); Navajo Division of Health, Window Rock, Arizona, USA (D. Yazzie); Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff (P. Keim)

The hyper-virulent emm59 genotype of invasive group A Streptococcus was identified in northern Arizona in 2015.

Eighteen isolates belonging to a genomic cluster grouped most closely with recently identified isolates in New Mexico.

The continued transmission of emm59 in the southwestern United States poses a public health concern.

PDF

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/22/4/pdfs/15-1582.pdf

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March 17, 2016 at 2:00 pm

Severe Infections with Human Adenovirus 7d in 2 Adults in Family, Illinois, USA, 2014

Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal APRIL 2016 V.22 N.4

Adriana E. Kajon1Comments to Author  and Michael G. Ison1

Author affiliations: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA (A.E. Kajon); Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA (M.G. Ison)

Human adenovirus 7d, a genomic variant with no reported circulation in the United States, was isolated from 2 adults with severe respiratory infections in Illinois.

Molecular typing identified a close relationship with strains of the same genome type isolated from cases of respiratory disease in several provinces of China since 2009.

PDF

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/22/4/pdfs/15-1403.pdf

March 17, 2016 at 1:58 pm

Limited Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase– and Plasmid-Encoded AmpC–Producing Escherichia coli from Food and Farm Animals, Sweden

Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal APRIL 2016 V.22 N.4

Stefan Börjesson1Comments to Author , Sofia Ny1, Maria Egervärn, Jakob Bergström, Åsa Rosengren, Stina Englund, Sonja Löfmark, and Sara Byfors

Author affiliations: National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden (S. Börjesson, S. Englund); Public Health Agency of Sweden,; Stockholm, Sweden (S. Ny, J. Bergström, S. Löfmark, S. Byfors); National Food Agency, Uppsala (M. Egervärn, Å. Rosengren)

Abstract

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)– and plasmid-encoded ampC (pAmpC)–producing Enterobacteriaceae might spread from farm animals to humans through food. However, most studies have been limited in number of isolates tested and areas studied.

We examined genetic relatedness of 716 isolates from 4,854 samples collected from humans, farm animals, and foods in Sweden to determine whether foods and farm animals might act as reservoirs and dissemination routes for ESBL/pAmpC-producing Escherichia coli.

Results showed that clonal spread to humans appears unlikely. However, we found limited dissemination of genes encoding ESBL/pAmpC and plasmids carrying these genes from foods and farm animals to healthy humans and patients.

Poultry and chicken meat might be a reservoir and dissemination route to humans.

Although we found no evidence of clonal spread of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli from farm animals or foods to humans, ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli with identical genes and plasmids were present in farm animals, foods, and humans.

PDF

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/22/4/pdfs/15-1142.pdf

March 17, 2016 at 1:57 pm

Prospective Multicenter Surveillance Study of Funguria in Hospitalized Patients

Clinical Infectious Diseases January 2000 V.30 N.1 P.14-18

Carol A. Kauffman, José A. Vazquez, Jack D. Sobel, Harry A. Gallis, David S. McKinsey, A. W. Karchmer, Alan M. Sugar, Patricia Kay Sharkey, Gilbert J. Wise, Richard Mangi, Ann Mosher, Jeannette Y. Lee, William E. Dismukes, and National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Mycoses Study Group

1University of Michigan and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan

2Wayne State University Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan

3Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina

4Infectious Diseases Associates of Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri

5Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

6Boston University Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

7University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas

8Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York

9St. Raphael Medical Center, New Haven, Connecticut

10University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama

Although fungal urinary tract infections are an increasing nosocomial problem, the significance of funguria is still not clear.

This multicenter prospective surveillance study of 861 patients was undertaken to define the epidemiology, management, and outcomes of funguria.

Diabetes mellitus was present in 39% of patients, urinary tract abnormalities in 37.7%, and malignancy in 22.2%; only 10.9% had no underlying illnesses. Concomitant nonfungal infections were present in 85%, 90% had received antimicrobial agents, and 83.2% had urinary tract drainage devices.

Candida albicans was found in 51.8% of patients and Candida glabrata in 15.6%. Microbiological and clinical outcomes were documented for 530 (61.6%) of the 861 patients.

No specific therapy for funguria was given to 155 patients, and the yeast cleared from the urine of 117 (75.5%) of them. Of the 116 patients who had a catheter removed as the only treatment, the funguria cleared in 41 (35.3%).

Antifungal therapy was given to 259 patients, eradicating funguria in 130 (50.2%). The rate of eradication with fluconazole was 45.5%, and with amphotericin B bladder irrigation it was 54.4%. Only 7 patients (1.3%) had documented candidemia.

The mortality rate was 19.8%, reflecting the multiple serious underlying illnesses found in these patients with funguria.

PDF

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/30/1/14.full.pdf

March 17, 2016 at 8:25 am

BROTE DE ENCEFALITIS DE SAN LUIS EN EL AREA METROPOLITANA BUENOS AIRES

MEDICINA 2011

ALFREDO SEIJO1, ALEJANDRA MORALES2, GLADYS POUSTIS1, YAMILA ROMER1, ERNESTO EFRON3, GUILLERMO VILORA4, SUSANA LLOVERAS1, SERGIO GIAMPERETTI1, TERESITA PUENTE5, JESSICA MONROIG1, VICTORIA LUPPO2, DELIA ENRIA2

1 Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas Francisco J. Muñiz,

2 Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas, J. Maiztegui, Pergamino,

3 Hospital Británico,

4 Hospital Ramos Mejía,

5 Sanatorio Julio Méndez, Buenos Aires

 

Resumen

Se describen los hallazgos epidemiológicos y clínicos de 13 enfermos con diagnóstico de infección por virus de la encefalitis de San Luis, con transmisión entre enero y marzo de 2010, en el Area Metropolitana Buenos Aires (AMBA).

Los 13 enfermos, promedio de edad 38 años, tuvieron un comienzo agudo caracterizado por hipertermia y cefalea. Entre los días dos y diez de iniciados los síntomas, 7/13 enfermos tuvieron signos y síntomas de compromiso neurológico caracterizado por meningitis sin signos encefálicos en 1/7.

En 6/7 los hallazgos más frecuentes fueron: rigidez de nuca, desorientación temporoespacial, fotofobia, confusión y alteración del lenguaje. Dos resonancias magnéticas y un electroencefalograma presentaron signos de afectación de lóbulos temporales.

El líquido cefalorraquídeo se caracterizó por pleocitosis con predominio de células mononucleadas, glucorraquia normal y discreto aumento de proteínas. No hubo casos fatales. En 6/13 pacientes la sospecha clínica inicial fue dengue.

Por la agrupación espacial y temporal de los casos puede considerarse un brote epidémico, el primero conocido en el AMBA, ya que no se había notificado previamente la circulación epidémica del virus.

PDF

http://medicinabuenosaires.com/demo/revistas/vol71-11/3/vol.%2071_n3_p.%20211-217.pdf

March 17, 2016 at 8:23 am

Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009

MEDICINA JUNIO 2011 V.71 N.3

Horacio López1,2, Jorge Neira2, María Alejandra Morales3, Cintia Fabbri3, María Laura D´Agostino1,2, Teresa Zitto1,2

1Centro de Infectología – Institución Afiliada a la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Buenos Aires,

2Sanatorio de la Trinidad Palermo,

3Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas Dr. J. Maiztegui, ANLIS Dr. Carlos G Malbrán, Pergamino, Buenos Aires

Dirección postal: Dra. Teresa Zitto, Centro de Infectología-Institución Afiliada a la Facultad de Medicina de la UBA, Pacheco de Melo 3068, 1425 Buenos Aires, Argentina

Fax: (54-11) 4804-0680 e-mail: 1hlopez@arnet.com.ar

Resumen

Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE) durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009.

Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y proteinorraquia elevada.

El resultado de los cultivos para bacterias, hongos y micobacterias, así como el PCR en LCR para herpes virus, HSV, CMV y EBV, fue negativo. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM para virus SLE tanto en LCR como en muestra de suero, con seroconversión IgG por neutralización en cultivos celulares y resultados negativos para los demás Flavivirus con circulación en Argentina.

Se revisan evidencias sobre la presencia de virus de San Luis en nuestro país, y se señala la importancia de la confirmación diagnóstica y el estudio de otros Flavivirus en casos sospechosos de dengue con presentación grave o atípica.

Este trabajo remarca la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus SLE, como el control vectorial para prevenir las diferentes infecciones transmitidas por mosquitos y conocer su efecto en Salud Pública en la Argentina.

PDF

http://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/medba/v71n3/v71n3a09.pdf

March 17, 2016 at 8:21 am


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