Archive for March 22, 2016

Diabetes and risk of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: A population-based case-control study

Eur J Endocrinol March 10, 2016

Jesper Smith, Mette Søgaard, Henrik Carl Schønheyder, Henrik Nielsen, Trine Frøslev and Reimar Wernich Thomsen

J Smit, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark

M Søgaard, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

H Schønheyder, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark

H Nielsen, Department of Infectious Diseases, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark

T Frøslev, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

R Thomsen, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

Correspondence: Jesper Smit, Email: jesm@rn.dk

Objective

Patients with diabetes may experience higher risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) than patients without diabetes due to decreased immunity or coexisting morbidities. We investigated the risk of community-acquired (CA) SAB in persons with and without diabetes.

Design

Using population-based medical databases, we conducted a case-control study of all adults with first-time CA-SAB and matched population controls in Northern Denmark, 2000-2011.

Methods

Based on conditional logistic regression, we computed odds ratios (ORs) of CA-SAB according to diabetes. We further assessed whether the risk of CA-SAB differed according to various diabetes-related characteristics (e.g. duration of diabetes, glycemic control, and presence of diabetes complications).

Results

We identified 2,638 patients with incident CA-SAB of which 713 (27.0%) had diabetes, and 26,379 matched population controls (2,495 or 9.5% with diabetes). Individuals with diabetes had a substantially increased risk of CA-SAB compared with population controls (adjusted OR=2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.5-3.1)). Diabetes duration of ≥10 years and poor glycemic control conferred higher risk estimates, with an adjusted OR=2.3 (95% CI, 1.9-2.7) for diabetes with Hba1c <7% (<53 mmol/mol) and an adjusted OR=5.7 (95% CI, 4.2-7.7) for diabetes with Hba1c ≥9% (≥75 mmol/mol). The risk of CA-SAB was particularly high in patient with diabetes complications: adjusted OR=5.5 (95% CI, 4.2-7.2) with presence of microvascular complications and OR=7.0 (95% CI, 5.4-9.0) with combined macro- and microvascular complications.

Conclusions

Diabetes is associated with substantially increased risk of CA-SAB, particularly among patients with diabetes of long duration, poor glycemic control, and diabetes complications.

abstract

http://www.eje-online.org/content/early/2016/03/10/EJE-16-0023

PDF

http://www.eje-online.org/content/early/2016/03/10/EJE-16-0023.full.pdf

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March 22, 2016 at 10:40 pm

Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions — United States, 2016

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65(Early Release)

Christine K. Olson, MD; Martha Iwamoto, MD; Kiran M. Perkins, MD; et al.

Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important.

Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/pdfs/mm6511e3er.pdf

 

2016-03 Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions 

 

March 22, 2016 at 3:50 pm


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