Archive for June 12, 2016

Microbiological laboratory diagnostics of neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs).

Acta Trop. 2015 Sep 21. pii: S0001-706X(15)30101-7.

Schwarz NG1, Loderstaedt U2, Hahn A3, Hinz R4, Zautner AE5, Eibach D6, Fischer M7, Hagen RM8, Frickmann H9.

Author information

1Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard Nocht street 74, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address: schwarznorbert@bnitm.de

2Institute for Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Centre, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address: ulrike.loderstaedt@med.uni-goettingen.de

3Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard Nocht street 74, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address: hahn@bnitm.de

4Department of Tropical Medicine at the Bernhard Nocht Institute, German Armed Forces Hospital of Hamburg, Bernhard Nocht street 74, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address: hinz@bnitm.de

5Institute for Clinical Chemistry, University Medical Centre, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany; Institute for Medical Microbiology, University Medical Centre, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address: azautne@gwdg.de

6Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard Nocht street 74, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address: eibach@bnitm.de

7Department of Tropical Medicine at the Bernhard Nocht Institute, German Armed Forces Hospital of Hamburg, Bernhard Nocht street 74, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address: marcellusfischer@bundeswehr.org

8Department of Tropical Medicine at the Bernhard Nocht Institute, German Armed Forces Hospital of Hamburg, Bernhard Nocht street 74, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address: hagen@bnitm.de

9Department of Tropical Medicine at the Bernhard Nocht Institute, German Armed Forces Hospital of Hamburg, Bernhard Nocht street 74, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany; Institute for Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medicine Rostock, D-18057 Rostock, Germany. Electronic address: Frickmann@bni-hamburg.de

Abstract

This review reports on laboratory diagnostic approaches for selected, highly pathogenic neglected zoonotic diseases, i.e. anthrax, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, rabies, Taenia solium-associated diseases (neuro-/cysticercosis & taeniasis) and trypanosomiasis. Diagnostic options, including microscopy, culture, matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, molecular approaches and serology are introduced.

These procedures are critically discussed regarding their diagnostic reliability and state of evaluation. For rare diseases reliable evaluation data are scarce due to the rarity of samples. If bio-safety level 3 is required for cultural growth, but such high standards of laboratory infrastructure are not available, serological and molecular approaches from inactivated sample material might be alternatives.

Multiple subsequent testing using various test platforms in a stepwise approach may improve sensitivity and specificity. Cheap and easy to use tests, usually called “rapid diagnostic tests” (RDTs) may impact disease control measures, but should not preclude developing countries from state of the art diagnostics.

PDF

http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0001706X15301017/1-s2.0-S0001706X15301017-main.pdf?_tid=c5f80970-30eb-11e6-a7a1-00000aacb35d&acdnat=1465770167_1e320f028d784d29a36812f4b0d42c69

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June 12, 2016 at 7:47 pm

Analyzing the molecular mechanism of lipoprotein localization in Brucella.

Front Microbiol. 2015 Oct 28;6:1189.

Goolab S1, Roth RL2, van Heerden H3, Crampton MC2.

Author information

1Protein Technologies, Biosciences, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Pretoria, South Africa ; Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria Pretoria, South Africa.

2Protein Technologies, Biosciences, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Pretoria, South Africa.

3Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria Pretoria, South Africa.

Abstract

Bacterial lipoproteins possess diverse structure and functionality, ranging from bacterial physiology to pathogenic processes. As such many lipoproteins, originating from Brucella are exploited as potential vaccines to countermeasure brucellosis infection in the host. These membrane proteins are translocated from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane where they are anchored peripherally by a multifaceted targeting mechanism. Although much research has focused on the identification and classification of Brucella lipoproteins and their potential use as vaccine candidates for the treatment of Brucellosis, the underlying route for the translocation of these lipoproteins to the outer surface of the Brucella (and other pathogens) outer membrane (OM) remains mostly unknown. This is partly due to the complexity of the organism and evasive tactics used to escape the host immune system, the variation in biological structure and activity of lipoproteins, combined with the complex nature of the translocation machinery. The biosynthetic pathway of Brucella lipoproteins involves a distinct secretion system aiding translocation from the cytoplasm, where they are modified by lipidation, sorted by the lipoprotein localization machinery pathway and thereafter equipped for export to the OM. Surface localized lipoproteins in Brucella may employ a lipoprotein flippase or the β-barrel assembly complex for translocation. This review provides an overview of the characterized Brucella OM proteins that form part of the OM, including a handful of other characterized bacterial lipoproteins and their mechanisms of translocation. Lipoprotein localization pathways in gram negative bacteria will be used as a model to identify gaps in Brucella lipoprotein localization and infer a potential pathway. Of particular interest are the dual topology lipoproteins identified in Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenza. The localization and topology of these lipoproteins from other gram negative bacteria are well characterized and may be useful to infer a solution to better understand the translocation process in Brucella.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4623201/pdf/fmicb-06-01189.pdf

June 12, 2016 at 7:45 pm

Childhood brucellosis: Review of 317 cases.

Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2015 Dec;8(12):1027-32.

Bosilkovski M1, Krteva L2, Caparoska S2, Labacevski N3, Petrovski M4.

Author information

1Medical Faculty, ‘Ss Cyril and Methodius’ University, Skopje, Macedonia. Electronic address: milebos@yahoo.com

2University Clinic for Infectious Diseases and Febrile Conditions, Skopje, Macedonia.

3Medical Faculty, ‘Ss Cyril and Methodius’ University, Skopje, Macedonia; Institute for Clinical Pharmacology, Skopje, Macedonia.

4Medical Faculty, ‘Ss Cyril and Methodius’ University, Skopje, Macedonia; University Clinic for Pediatric Surgery, Skopje, Macedonia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe the main epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features, treatment options and outcome in children with brucellosis.

METHODS:

Retrospectively evaluated data were obtained from 317 pediatric patients with brucellosis that were treated at the University Clinic for Infectious Diseases and Febrile Conditions in Skopje, during the period from 1989 to 2011. The medical records and follow-up protocols were used for evaluation.

RESULTS:

Childhood brucellosis composed 317 (18.7%) of 1691 patients with brucellosis. The patients were median 9 years old, ranging from 7 months to 14 years, and 201 (63.4%) were males. Family history was present in 197 (62.1%), and direct contact with animals occurred in 140 (44.2%) of the children. The dominant manifestations were fever in 248 (78.2%), joint pain in 228 (71.9%) and hepatomegaly in 216 (68.1%). Organ affection was present in 206 (65.0%) of the patients. One hundred and six (33.4%) of the patients were treated with combination composed of two, and 211 (66.6%) with three antimicrobial agents. Relapses were registered in 21 (6.6%), and therapeutic failures in 3 (0.9%) of the children.

CONCLUSIONS:

In endemic regions childhood brucellosis represents a significant part of human cases. Wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, frequent affection of various organ systems and possibility of relapses show that brucellosis could be a serious disease in this age group. The presence of fever, joint pain, sweating, and affection of various systems in children from endemic regions should alert pediatricians for the possibility of brucellosis.

PDF

http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1995764515001947/1-s2.0-S1995764515001947-main.pdf?_tid=2810722e-30eb-11e6-9da0-00000aab0f26&acdnat=1465769902_673e9d6f4068c645cf8a5a557a7b268e

June 12, 2016 at 7:44 pm

Establishment of Chronic Infection: Brucella’s Stealth Strategy.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2016 Mar 15;6:30.

Ahmed W1, Zheng K1, Liu ZF1.

Author information

1State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University Wuhan, China.

Abstract

Brucella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes zoonotic infection known as brucellosis which results in abortion and infertility in natural host. Humans, especially in low income countries, can acquire infection by direct contact with infected animal or by consumption of animal products and show high morbidity, severe economic losses and public health problems.

However for survival, host cells develop complex immune mechanisms to defeat and battle against attacking pathogens and maintain a balance between host resistance and Brucella virulence. On the other hand as a successful intracellular pathogen, Brucella has evolved multiple strategies to evade immune response mechanisms to establish persistent infection and replication within host.

In this review, we mainly summarize the “Stealth” strategies employed by Brucella to modulate innate and the adaptive immune systems, autophagy, apoptosis and possible role of small noncoding RNA in the establishment of chronic infection.

The purpose of this review is to give an overview for recent understanding how this pathogen evades immune response mechanisms of host, which will facilitate to understanding the pathogenesis of brucellosis and the development of novel, more effective therapeutic approaches to treat brucellosis.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791395/pdf/fcimb-06-00030.pdf

June 12, 2016 at 7:43 pm


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