Emerging Role of Zika Virus in Adverse Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes
Clinical Microbiology Reviews July 2016 V.29 N.3 P.659-694
Alice Panchaud, Miloš Stojanov, Anne Ammerdorffer, Manon Vouga, and David Baud
aSchool of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva and University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland
bDepartment of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
cSwiss Teratogen Information Service and Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Lausanne and University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
dInstitute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne and University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
eMaterno-fetal and Obstetrics Research Unit, Department Femme-Mère-Enfant, University of Lausanne and University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
The rapid spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and its potential association with thousands of suspected cases of microcephaly in Brazil and higher rates of Guillain-Barré syndrome meet the conditions for a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, as stated by the World Health Organization in February 2016.
Two months later, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that the current available evidence supports the existence of a causal relationship between prenatal Zika virus infection and microcephaly and other serious brain anomalies.
Microcephaly can be caused by several factors, and its clinical course and prognosis are difficult to predict. Other pathogens with proven teratogenicity have been identified long before the current ZIKV epidemic. Despite the growing number of cases with maternal signs of infection and/or presence of ZIKV in tissues of affected newborns or fetuses, it is currently difficult to assess the magnitude of increase of microcephaly prevalence in Brazil, as well as the role of other factors in the development of congenital neurological conditions.
Meanwhile, health agencies and medical organizations have issued cautious guidelines advising health care practitioners and expectant couples traveling to, returning from, or living in affected areas.
Analogous to dengue virus (DENV) epidemics, ZIKV has the potential to become endemic in all countries infested by Aedes mosquitoes, while new mutations could impact viral replication in humans, leading to increased virulence and consequently heightened chances of viral transmission to additional naive mosquito vectors.
Studies are urgently needed to answer the questions surrounding ZIKV and its role in congenital neurological conditions.
Entry filed under: Biología Molecular, Epidemiología, FIEBRE en el POST-VIAJE, Infecciones del SNC, Infecciones emergentes, Infecciones en embarzadas, Infecciones virales, Medicina del viajero, Metodos diagnosticos, Sepsis, Update, Zoonosis.