Archive for July 2, 2016

2016-05 Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of OIs in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents

Recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America


July 2, 2016 at 10:38 pm

The Alpha-defensin Test for Periprosthetic Joint Infections Is Not Affected by Prior Antibiotic Administration.

Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2016 Jul;474(7):1610-5.

Shahi A1, Parvizi J1, Kazarian GS1, Higuera C2, Frangiamore S2, Bingham J3, Beauchamp C3, Valle CD4, Deirmengian C1,5.

Author information

1The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

5The Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, 100 Lancaster Avenue, Wynnewood, PA, 19096, USA.



Previous studies have demonstrated that the administration of antibiotics to patients before performing diagnostic testing for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can interfere with the accuracy of test results. Although a single-institution study has suggested that alpha-defensin maintains its concentration and sensitivity even after antibiotic treatment, this has not yet been demonstrated in a larger multiinstitutional study.


(1) For the evaluation of PJI, is prior antibiotic administration associated with decreased alpha-defensin levels? (2) When prior antibiotics are given, is alpha-defensin a better screening test for PJI than the traditional tests (erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP], fluid white blood cells, fluid polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs], and fluid culture)?


This retrospective study included data from 106 hip and knee arthroplasties with Musculoskeletal Infection Society-defined PJI from four centers. Of the 106 patients in this study, 30 (28%) were treated with antibiotics for PJI before diagnostic workup (ABX group), and 76 (72%) were not treated before the diagnostic workup (NO-ABX group). There were no differences in age, sex, joint, culture-negative rate, or bacteriology between groups. The patients in the ABX group had antibiotics initiated by physicians who commenced care before assessment for PJI by the treating surgeon’s service. We compared the alpha-defensin levels and sensitivity between the ABX and NO-ABX groups. Additionally, the sensitivity of the alpha-defensin test was compared to that of traditional tests for PJI among patients on antibiotics.


The administration of antibiotics before performing the alpha-defensin test for PJI was not associated with a decreased median alpha-defensin level (ABX group, median 4.2 [range, 1.79-12.8 S/CO] versus NO-ABX, median 4.9 [range, 0.5-16.8 S/CO], difference of medians: 0.68 S/CO [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.98 to 1.26], p = 0.451). Furthermore, the alpha-defensin test had a higher sensitivity (100%; 95% CI, 88.4%-100.0%) in diagnosing PJI among patients on antibiotics when compared with the ESR (69.0% [95% CI, 49.17%-84.72%], p = 0.001), the CRP (79.3% [95% CI, 60.3%-92.0%], p = 0.009), the fluid PMN% (79.3% [95% CI, 60.3%-92.0%), p = 0.009), and fluid culture (70.0% [95% CI, 50.6%-85.3%], p = 0.001).


The alpha-defensin test maintains its concentration and sensitivity for PJI even in the setting of antibiotic administration. Furthermore, among patients with PJI on antibiotics, the alpha-defensin tests demonstrated a higher sensitivity in detecting PJI when compared with the ESR, CRP, fluid PMN%, and fluid culture. The high sensitivity of the alpha-defensin test, even in the setting of prior antibiotic treatment, provides excellent utility as a screening test for PJI.


July 2, 2016 at 7:49 pm

Prevention of Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2015 Apr;3(2):72-81.

Shahi A1, Parvizi J1.

Author information

1Alisina Shahi MD Javad Parvizi MD, FRCS The Rothman Institute of Orthopaedics at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.


Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a calamitous complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The reported incidence is low but it is probably underestimated due to the difficulty in diagnosis. PJI has challenged the orthopaedic community for several years and despite all the advances in this field, it is still a real concern with immense impact on patients, and the healthcare system. Eradication of infection can be very difficult. Therefore, prevention remains the ultimate goal. The medical community has executed many practices with the intention to prevent infection and treat it effectively when it encounters. Numerous factors can predispose patients to PJI. Identifying the host risk factors, patients’ health modification, proper wound care, and optimizing operative room environment remain some of the core fundamental steps that can help minimizing the overall incidence of infection. In this review we have summarized the effective prevention strategies along with the recommendations of a recent International Consensus Meeting on Surgical Site and Periprosthetic Joint Infection.



July 2, 2016 at 7:47 pm


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