Archive for July 7, 2016

Recurrent Epistaxis and Bleeding as the Initial Manifestation of Brucellosis.

Acta Med Iran. 2016 Mar;54(3):218-9.

Kamali Aghdam M1, Davari K1, Eftekhari K2.

Author information

1Department of Pediatric, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

2Department of Pediatric, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Severe thrombocytopenia with bleeding is rarely reported in children with brucellosis, and recurrent epistaxis is extremely rare.

Brucellosis with hemorrhage should be differentiated from viral hemorrhagic fever, malignancy, and other blood disorders. Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) is mandatory to differentiate from other blood diseases.

An 8-year-old boy was admitted with recurrent epistaxis, petechiae and purpura on face and extremities and bleeding from the gums. During the hospitalization, he was febrile and complained of muscle pain.

Leukopenias associated with thrombocytopenia were observed. BMA showed to be normal. Among the multiple tests requested, only serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-MercaptoEthanol test (2-ME) were positive.

He was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) associated with co-trimoxazole and rifampin. Finally, fever subsided, and he was discharged with good condition and normal platelet count.

Brucellosis should be a differential diagnosis in patients with fever and bleeding disorders and a history of consumption of unpasteurized dairy, in endemic areas.

PDF (CLIC in PDF)

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July 7, 2016 at 11:50 am

The Optimization of Molecular Detection of Clinical Isolates of Brucella in Blood Cultures by eryD Transcriptase Gene for Confirmation of Culture-Negative Samples.

Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016 Feb 14;18(4):e23879.

Tabibnejad M1, Alikhani MY2, Arjomandzadegan M3, Hashemi SH2, Naseri Z4.

Author information

1Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran.

2Brucellosis Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran.

3Tuberculosis and Pediatric Infectious Research Center and Department of Microbiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran.

4Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion, Hamadan, IR Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Brucellosis is a zoonosis disease which is widespread across the world.

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of the present study is the evaluation of culture-negative blood samples.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A total of 100 patients with suspected brucellosis were included in this experimental study and given positive serological tests. Diagnosis was performed on patients with clinical symptoms of the disease, followed by the detection of a titer that was equal to or more than 1:160 (in endemic areas) by the standard tube agglutination method. Blood samples were cultured by a BACTEC 9050 system, and subsequently by Brucella agar. At the same time, DNA from all blood samples was extracted by Qiagen Kit Company (Qia Amp Mini Kit). A molecular assay of blood samples was carried out by detection of eryD transcriptase and bcsp 31 genes in specific double PCR reactions. The specificity of the primers was evaluated by DNA from pure and approved Brucella colonies found in the blood samples, by DNA from other bacteria, and by ordinary PCR. DNA extraction from the pure colonies was carried out by both Qiagen Kit and Chelex 100 methods; the two were compared.

RESULTS:

39 cases (39%) had positive results when tested by the BACTEC system, and 61 cases (61%) became negative. 23 culture-positive blood samples were randomly selected for PCR reactions; all showed 491 bp for the eryD gene and 223 bp for the bcsp 31 gene. Interestingly, out of 14 culture-negative blood samples, 13 cases showed positive bonds in PCR. The specificity of the PCR method was equal to 100%. DNA extraction from pure cultures was done by both Chelex 100 and Qiagen Kit; these showed the same results for all samples.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results prove that the presented double PCR method could be used to detect positive cases from culture-negative blood samples. The Chelex 100 method is simpler and safer than the use of Qiagen Kit for DNA extraction

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4912833/pdf/ircmj-18-04-23879.pdf

July 7, 2016 at 11:48 am

Dengue virus sero-cross-reactivity drives antibody-dependent enhancement of infection with zika virus

Nat Immunol 2016 Jun 23; [e-pub]

Dejnirattisai W et al

Division of Immunology and Inflammation, Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College London, UK.

Wanwisa Dejnirattisai, Piyada Supasa, Wiyada Wongwiwat, Juthathip Mongkolsapaya & Gavin R Screaton

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Research Unit, Office for Research and Development, Siriraj Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Piyada Supasa, Prida Malasit & Juthathip Mongkolsapaya

Graduate Program in Immunology, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Piyada Supasa

Institut Pasteur, Département de Virologie, Unité de Virologie Structurale, Paris, France.

Alexander Rouvinski, Giovanna Barba-Spaeth & Felix A Rey

CNRS UMR 3569 Virologie, Paris, France.

Alexander Rouvinski, Giovanna Barba-Spaeth & Felix A Rey

Medical Biotechnology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Thaneeya Duangchinda & Prida Malasit

Institut Pasteur, Functional Genetics of Infectious Diseases Unit, Paris, France.

Anavaj Sakuntabhai

CNRS URA3012, Paris, France.

Anavaj Sakuntabhai

Unit of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Institut Louis Malardé, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia.

Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau

Zika virus (ZIKV) was discovered in 1947 and was thought to lead to relatively mild disease. The recent explosive outbreak of ZIKV in South America has led to widespread concern, with reports of neurological sequelae ranging from Guillain Barré syndrome to microcephaly. ZIKV infection has occurred in areas previously exposed to dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus closely related to ZIKV. Here we investigated the serological cross-reaction between the two viruses. Plasma immune to DENV showed substantial cross-reaction to ZIKV and was able to drive antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of ZIKV infection. Using a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to DENV, we showed that most antibodies that reacted to DENV envelope protein also reacted to ZIKV. Antibodies to linear epitopes, including the immunodominant fusion-loop epitope, were able to bind ZIKV but were unable to neutralize the virus and instead promoted ADE. Our data indicate that immunity to DENV might drive greater ZIKV replication and have clear implications for disease pathogenesis and future vaccine programs for ZIKV and DENV.

abstract

http://www.nature.com/ni/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ni.3515.html

PDF

http://www.nature.com/ni/journal/vaop/ncurrent/pdf/ni.3515.pdf

July 7, 2016 at 7:53 am

Structural basis of potent Zika–dengue virus antibody cross-neutralization.

Nature 2016 Jun 23; [e-pub]

Barba-Spaeth G et al

Institut Pasteur, Unité de Virologie Structurale, Département de Virologie, F-75724 Paris Cedex 15, France

Giovanna Barba-Spaeth, Alexander Rouvinski, Marie-Christine Vaney, Arvind Sharma & Félix A. Rey

CNRS UMR 3569 Virologie, F-75724 Paris Cedex 15, France

Giovanna Barba-Spaeth, Alexander Rouvinski, Marie-Christine Vaney, Arvind Sharma & Félix A. Rey

Division of Immunology and Inflammation, Department of Medicine, Hammersmith campus, Imperial College London, UK

Wanwisa Dejnirattisai, Juthathip Mongkolsapaya & Gavin R. Screaton

Department of Virology, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, A-1095 Vienna, Austria

Iris Medits, Karin Stiasny & Franz X. Heinz

Institut Pasteur, Unité de Génétique fonctionnelle des maladies infectieuses, Département de Génomes et Génétique, F-75724 Paris Cedex 15, France

Etienne Simon-Lorière & Anavaj Sakuntabhai

CNRS URA 3012, F-75724 Paris Cedex 15, France

Etienne Simon-Lorière & Anavaj Sakuntabhai

Unit of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Institut Louis Malardé, Papeete,Tahiti,French Polynesia

Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau

Institut Pasteur, Plateforme de Cristallographie, Département de Biologie Structurale et Chimie, F-75724 Paris Cedex 15, France

Ahmed Haouz

Institut Pasteur, Plateforme de Biophysique des Macromolécules et de leurs Interactions, Département de Biologie Structurale et Chimie, F-75724 Paris Cedex 15, France

Patrick England

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Research Unit, Office for Research and Development, Siriraj Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Juthathip Mongkolsapaya

Zika virus is a member of the flavivirus genus that had not been associated with severe disease in humans until the recent outbreaks, when it was linked to microcephaly in newborns in Brazil and to Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults in French Polynesia. Zika virus is related to dengue virus, and we report here that a category of antibodies isolated from dengue patients and targeting a conformational epitope potently neutralize Zika virus. The crystal structure of two of these antibodies in complex with the envelope protein of Zika virus reveals the details of a conserved epitope, which is also the site of interaction of the envelope protein dimer with the precursor prM protein during virus maturation. Comparison of the Zika and dengue virus immunocomplexes provides a lead for rational, epitope-focused design of a universal vaccine capable of eliciting potent cross-neutralizing antibodies to protect against Zika and dengue viruses simultaneously

abstract

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaap/ncurrent/full/nature18938.html

PDF

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaap/ncurrent/pdf/nature18938.pdf

July 7, 2016 at 7:52 am


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