Epidemiology of and Diagnostic Strategies for Toxoplasmosis

July 25, 2016 at 6:15 pm

Clin. Microbiol. Rev. April 2012 25(2): 264-296

Florence Robert-Gangneux and Marie-Laure Dardé

aService de Parasitologie, Faculté de Médecine et Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes, Rennes, France

bINSERM U1085, IRSET (Institut de Recherche en Santé Environnement Travail), Université Rennes 1, Rennes, France

cCentre National de Référence (CNR) Toxoplasmose/Toxoplasma Biological Resource Center (BRC), Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Centre Hospitalier-Universitaire Dupuytren, Limoges, France

dINSERM U1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Limoges, France, Université Limoges School of Medicine, Institute of Neuroepidemiology and Tropical Neurology, Limoges, France, and CNRS FR 3503 GEIST, CHU Limoges, Limoges, France

The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient’s background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies.

PDF

http://cmr.asm.org/content/25/2/264.full.pdf+html

 

ERRATUM

Page 280, Fig. 5: The center box in the top row for the nonimmunized women should read “IgG−IgM−.”

Entry filed under: Antiparasitarios, Biología Molecular, Epidemiología, Metodos diagnosticos, REVIEWS, Sepsis, Update, Zoonosis. Tags: .

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