Archive for July 26, 2016

Trends in Human Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in the Community: Toward the Globalization of CTX-M

Clin. Microbiol. Rev. October 2013 26(4): 744-758

Paul-Louis Woerther, Charles Burdet, Elisabeth Chachaty, and Antoine Andremont

Institut Gustave Roussy, Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Villejuif, Francea

Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, and EA3964 Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Médecine, Paris, Franceb

Département de Biostatistiques, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, Francec

In the last 10 years, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteria (ESBL-E) have become one of the main challenges for antibiotic treatment of enterobacterial infections, largely because of the current CTX-M enzyme pandemic. However, most studies have focused on hospitalized patients, though today it appears that the community is strongly affected as well. We therefore decided to devote our investigation to trends in ESBL-E fecal carriage rates and comprehensively reviewed data from studies conducted on healthy populations in various parts of the world. We show that

(i) community ESBL-E fecal carriage, which was unknown before the turn of the millennium, has since increased significantly everywhere, with developing countries being the most affected;

(ii) intercontinental travel may have emphasized and globalized the issue; and

(iii) CTX-M enzymes, especially CTX-M-15, are the dominant type of ESBL. Altogether, these results suggest that CTX-M carriage is evolving toward a global pandemic but is still insufficiently described.

Only a better knowledge of its dynamics and biology will lead to further development of appropriate control measures.


July 26, 2016 at 9:19 am

Pathogenesis and Current Approaches to Control of Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections

Clin. Microbiol. Rev. October 2013 26(4): 728-743

Anne A. Gershon and Michael D. Gershon

Departments of Pediatrics and Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was once thought to be a fairly innocuous pathogen. That view is no longer tenable. The morbidity and mortality due to the primary and secondary diseases that VZV causes, varicella and herpes zoster (HZ), are significant. Fortunately, modern advances, including an available vaccine to prevent varicella, a therapeutic vaccine to diminish the incidence and ameliorate sequelae of HZ, effective antiviral drugs, a better understanding of VZV pathogenesis, and advances in diagnostic virology have made it possible to control VZV in the United States. Occult forms of VZV-induced disease have been recognized, including zoster sine herpete and enteric zoster, which have expanded the field. Future progress should include development of more effective vaccines to prevent HZ and a more complete understanding of the consequences of VZV latency in the enteric nervous system.


July 26, 2016 at 9:17 am

Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure — United States, July 2016

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65(Early Release)

Titilope Oduyebo, MD; Irogue Igbinosa, MD; Emily E. Petersen, MD; et al.

CDC has updated its interim guidance for health care providers in the United States caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure, based on emerging data indicating Zika virus RNA can be detected for prolonged periods in some pregnant women. To increase the proportion of pregnant women with Zika virus infection who receive a definitive diagnosis, this guidance includes recommendations to expand real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction testing.


July 26, 2016 at 8:27 am

Update: Interim Guidance for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus — United States, July 2016

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65(Early Release)

John T. Brooks, MD; Allison Friedman, MS; Rachel E. Kachur, MPH; et al.

CDC has updated interim guidance for the prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus. The recommendations apply to all men and women who have traveled to or reside in areas with active Zika virus transmission and their sex partners. The recommendations in this report replace those previously issued and are now updated to reduce the risk for sexual transmission of Zika virus from both men and women to their sex partners. This guidance will be updated as more information becomes available.


July 26, 2016 at 8:26 am


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