Staphylococcal and Streptococcal Superantigen Exotoxins
Clin. Microbiol. Rev. July 2013 26(3): 422-447
Adam R. Spaulding, Wilmara Salgado-Pabón, Petra L. Kohler, Alexander R. Horswill, Donald Y. M. Leung, and Patrick M. Schlievert
Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USAa
Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USAb
Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado, USAc
This review begins with a discussion of the large family of Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococcal pyrogenic toxin T lymphocyte superantigens from structural and immunobiological perspectives.
With this as background, the review then discusses the major known and possible human disease associations with superantigens, including associations with toxic shock syndromes, atopic dermatitis, pneumonia, infective endocarditis, and autoimmune sequelae to streptococcal illnesses.
Finally, the review addresses current and possible novel strategies to prevent superantigen production and passive and active immunization strategies.