How to predict the risk of fracture in HIV?
Current Opinion In HIV and AIDS May 2016 V.11 N.3 P.261–267
Yin, Michael T.; Falutz, Julian
aDivision of Infectious Diseases, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
bChronic Viral Illness Service, Division of Infectious Diseases, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Purpose of review
Skeletal fractures are more common in HIV, and impact the medical, functional and economic status of frequently vulnerable patients. Identifying asymptomatic patients with low bone mineral density (BMD)/osteoporosis requiring intervention can be expected to reduce fracture risk and complications. Clinical tools are available to determine fracture risk in the general population and are being evaluated in HIV patients. The FRAX® calculator, incorporating demographics and risk factors for osteoporosis, with or without BMD results, has been investigated most often in HIV patients.
The few published studies that have calculated the 10-year FRAX® risk for both major osteoporosis and hip fractures without BMD generally show limited precision in predicting the presence of osteoporosis severe enough to initiate treatment. It remains uncertain whether using HIV as a secondary risk factor and adding dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-BMD information improves case-finding compared with using DXA results only. Not incorporating risks relevant to aging HIV patients such as antiretroviral exposure, hepatitis C virus coinfection and history of falls is other potential limitation.
Accurate screening tools using clinical risk factors alone to determine fracture risk in HIV are not yet available. Further research and validation studies are necessary.
PDF (CLIC in PDF)