Archive for September 19, 2016

HIV infection results in metabolic alterations in the gut microbiota different from those induced by other diseases.

Sci Rep. 2016 May 18;6:26192.

Serrano-Villar S1, Rojo D2, Martínez-Martínez M3, Deusch S4, Vázquez-Castellanos JF5,6, Sainz T7, Vera M8, Moreno S1, Estrada V9, Gosalbes MJ5,6, Latorre A5,6,10, Margolles A11, Seifert J4, Barbas C2, Moya A5,6,10, Ferrer M3.

Author information

1Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Ramón y Cajal and Ramón y Cajal Health Research Institute (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain.

2Centro de Metabolómica y Bioanálisis (CEMBIO), Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad CEU San Pablo, Campus Montepríncipe, Madrid, Spain.

3Institute of Catalysis, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

4Institute of Animal Science, Universität Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

5Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Community (FISABIO) – Public Health, Valencia, Spain.

6Network Research Center for Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBER-ESP), Madrid, Spain.

7Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University Hospital La Paz, and La Paz Research Institute (IdiPAZ), Madrid, Spain.

8Centro Sanitario Sandoval, Madrid, Spain.

9HIV Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

10Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva (Universidad de Valencia), Valencia, Spain.

11Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Dairy Research Institute (IPLA), CSIC, Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain.

Abstract

Imbalances in gut bacteria have been associated with multiple diseases. However, whether there are disease-specific changes in gut microbial metabolism remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (n = 33) changes, at quantifiable levels, the metabolism of gut bacteria. These changes are different than those observed in patients with the auto-immune disease systemic lupus erythaematosus (n = 18), and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (n = 6). Using healthy controls as a baseline (n = 16), we demonstrate that a trend in the nature and directionality of the metabolic changes exists according to the type of the disease. The impact on the gut microbial activity, and thus the metabolite composition and metabolic flux of gut microbes, is therefore disease-dependent. Our data further provide experimental evidence that HIV infection drastically changed the microbial community, and the species responsible for the metabolism of 4 amino acids, in contrast to patients with the other two diseases and healthy controls. The identification in this present work of specific metabolic deficits in HIV-infected patients may define nutritional supplements to improve the health of these patients

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4870624/pdf/srep26192.pdf

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September 19, 2016 at 7:43 pm

What happens to cardiovascular system behind the undetectable level of HIV viremia?

AIDS Res Ther. 2016 Apr 27;13:21.

d’Ettorre G1, Ceccarelli G1, Pavone P1, Vittozzi P1, De Girolamo G1, Schietroma I1, Serafino S1, Giustini N1, Vullo V1.

Author information

1Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Viale del Policlinico 155, Rome, Italy.

Abstract

Despite the combined antiretroviral therapy has improved the length and quality of life of HIV infected patients, the survival of these patients is always decreased compared with the general population. This is the consequence of non-infectious illnesses including cardio vascular diseases. In fact large studies have indicated an increased risk of coronary atherosclerotic disease, myocardial infarction even in HIV patients on cART. In HIV infected patients several factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular problems: life-style, metabolic parameters, genetic predisposition, viral factors, immune activation, chronic inflammation and side effects of antiretroviral therapy. The same factors may also contribute to complicate the clinical management of these patients. Therefore, treatment of these non-infectious illnesses in HIV infected population is an emerging challenge for physicians. The purpose of this review is to focus on the new insights in non AIDS-related cardiovascular diseases in patients with suppressed HIV viremia.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4848790/pdf/12981_2016_Article_105.pdf

September 19, 2016 at 7:42 pm

Likely sexual transmission of Zika virus from a man with no symptoms of infection — Maryland, 2016

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep September 2, 2016  V.65 N.34 P.915–916

Brooks RB et al

In June 2016, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH) was notified of a nonpregnant woman who sought treatment for a subjective fever and an itchy rash, which was described as maculopapular by her provider. Laboratory testing at the Maryland DHMH Laboratories Administration confirmed Zika virus infection. Case investigation revealed that the woman had not traveled to a region with ongoing transmission of Zika virus, but did have sexual contact with a male partner who had recently traveled to the Dominican Republic. The male partner reported exposure to mosquitoes while traveling, but no symptoms consistent with Zika virus infection either before or after returning to the United States. The woman reported no other sex partners during the 14 days before onset of her symptoms and no receipt of blood products or organ transplants….

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/pdfs/mm6534e2.pdf

September 19, 2016 at 8:08 am


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