HIV infection results in metabolic alterations in the gut microbiota different from those induced by other diseases.
Sci Rep. 2016 May 18;6:26192.
Serrano-Villar S1, Rojo D2, Martínez-Martínez M3, Deusch S4, Vázquez-Castellanos JF5,6, Sainz T7, Vera M8, Moreno S1, Estrada V9, Gosalbes MJ5,6, Latorre A5,6,10, Margolles A11, Seifert J4, Barbas C2, Moya A5,6,10, Ferrer M3.
1Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Ramón y Cajal and Ramón y Cajal Health Research Institute (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain.
2Centro de Metabolómica y Bioanálisis (CEMBIO), Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad CEU San Pablo, Campus Montepríncipe, Madrid, Spain.
3Institute of Catalysis, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
4Institute of Animal Science, Universität Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
5Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Community (FISABIO) – Public Health, Valencia, Spain.
6Network Research Center for Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBER-ESP), Madrid, Spain.
7Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University Hospital La Paz, and La Paz Research Institute (IdiPAZ), Madrid, Spain.
8Centro Sanitario Sandoval, Madrid, Spain.
9HIV Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
10Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva (Universidad de Valencia), Valencia, Spain.
11Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Dairy Research Institute (IPLA), CSIC, Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain.
Imbalances in gut bacteria have been associated with multiple diseases. However, whether there are disease-specific changes in gut microbial metabolism remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (n = 33) changes, at quantifiable levels, the metabolism of gut bacteria. These changes are different than those observed in patients with the auto-immune disease systemic lupus erythaematosus (n = 18), and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (n = 6). Using healthy controls as a baseline (n = 16), we demonstrate that a trend in the nature and directionality of the metabolic changes exists according to the type of the disease. The impact on the gut microbial activity, and thus the metabolite composition and metabolic flux of gut microbes, is therefore disease-dependent. Our data further provide experimental evidence that HIV infection drastically changed the microbial community, and the species responsible for the metabolism of 4 amino acids, in contrast to patients with the other two diseases and healthy controls. The identification in this present work of specific metabolic deficits in HIV-infected patients may define nutritional supplements to improve the health of these patients