Acute Management of Open Fractures: An Evidence-Based Review.
Orthopedics. 2015 Nov;38(11):e1025-33.
Halawi MJ, Morwood MP.
Open fractures are complex injuries associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite advances made in fracture care and infection prevention, open fractures remain a therapeutic challenge with varying levels of evidence to support some of the most commonly used practices. Additionally, a significant number of studies on this topic have focused on open tibial fractures. A systematic approach to evaluation and management should begin as soon as immediate life-threatening conditions have been stabilized. The Gustilo classification is arguably the most widely used method for characterizing open fractures. A first-generation cephalosporin should be administered as soon as possible. The optimal duration of antibiotics has not been well defined, but they should be continued for 24 hours. There is inconclusive evidence to support either extending the duration or broadening the antibiotic prophylaxis for type Gustilo type III wounds. Urgent surgical irrigation and debridement remains the mainstay of infection eradication, although questions persist regarding the optimal irrigation solution, volume, and delivery pressure. Wound sampling has a poor predictive value in determining subsequent infections. Early wound closure is recommended to minimize the risk of infection and cannot be substituted by negative-pressure wound therapy. Antibiotic-impregnated devices can be important adjuncts to systemic antibiotics in highly contaminated or comminuted injuries. Multiple fixation techniques are available, each having advantages and disadvantages. It is extremely important to maintain a high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome, especially in the setting of high-energy trauma.
Entry filed under: Antimicrobianos, Bacterias, Bacteriemias, Desinfection and Sterilization, Epidemiología, FIEBRE en el POSTOPERATORIO, Health Care-Associated Infections, Infecciones osteo-articulares-musculares, Infecciones relacionadas a prótesis, Infecciones sitio quirurgico, Inmunizaciones, Metodos diagnosticos, Profilaxis Antibiótica en Cirugía - PAC, Update.