Archive for November 18, 2016

Microbiota conjuntival en el preoperatorio de pacientes que se someterán a cirugía de cataratas

Revista Chilena de Infectología ABRIL 2015 V.32 N.2

Fernando Barría von-B., Henriette Chabouty, René Moreno, Freddy Ortiz y Fernando Barría M

Hospital Clínico Regional de Concepción Dr. Guillermo Grant Benavente, Concepción, Chile. Servicio de Oftalmología (FBvB). Asociación Panamericana de Oftalmología, Comité de Prevención de la Ceguera (FBvB). Laboratorio de Microbiología (hc). Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Medicina, Chile. Residente de Oftalmología (rm, fo). Estudiante de Medicina (fbM)

La cirugía de cataratas es la intervención oftalmológica más realizada en el mundo. Sin embargo, a pesar de nuestros esfuerzos, la catarata sigue siendo la principal causa de ceguera en el mundo, siendo su único tratamiento una cirugía para recuperar la visión.

Actualmente, 85 a 95% de los pacientes intervenidos logra recuperar la visión, lo que mejora su calidad de vida y permite reincorporarlo a la comunidad.

Esto ha traído aparejado un aumento de las expectativas en los resultados visuales de la cirugía de cataratas, por lo cual una infección intraocular o endoftalmitis post-quirúrgica por colonización microbiana es una de las complicaciones post-operatorias más temidas y devastadoras con un pronóstico visual incierto, pudiendo ocasionar secuelas graves, e incluso comprometer la integridad anatómica del globo ocular, lo que se asocia a un costo sanitario elevado, y además podría derivar en problemas médico legales ..

PDF

http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/rci/v32n2/art03.pdf

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November 18, 2016 at 7:53 pm

Dengue en Colombia: diez años de evolución

Revista Chilena de Infectología ABRIL 2015 V.32 N.2

Juan Camilo Castrillón, Jhon Carlos Castaño y Silvio Urcuqui

Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín Colombia. Grupo Inmunovirología (JCC, SU). Universidad del Quindío, Armenía, Colombia. Grupo Inmunología Molecular (JhCC).

Se ha sugerido que la epidemia de dengue comenzó en algunas regiones de Asia y el Pacífico, durante y después de la segunda guerra mundial.

Los cambios ecológicos que ocurrieron durante dicha época, probablemente favorecieron la expansión geográfica del vector del dengue virus (DENV); además, el alto número de individuos susceptibles (poblaciones locales y soldados) y su alta movilidad, posiblemente crearon las condiciones necesarias para la dispersión del DENV.

En América, el dengue comenzó a ser considerado como un problema importante de salud pública sólo hasta hace unas cuantas décadas.

En 1950 se inició un programa que tenía como objetivo erradicar el mosquito Aedes aegypti, principal vector del DENV y aunque este programa, coordinado por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) fue exitoso en muchos países, el mosquito no pudo erradicarse por completo de toda la región …

PDF

http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/rci/v32n2/art02.pdf

November 18, 2016 at 7:51 pm

Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a serious pathogen in periprosthetic joint infections: comparison to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

International Journal of Infectious Diseases October 2016 V.51 P.56-61.

Lourtet-Hascoët J1, Bicart-See A2, Félicé MP3, Giordano G4, Bonnet E2.

Author information

1Microbiological Laboratory, Hôpital J. Ducuing, 15 rue Varsovie, 31300 Toulouse, France. Electronic address: julielourtet@hotmail.com

2Infectious Diseases Mobile Unit, J. Ducuing Hospital, Toulouse, France.

3Microbiological Laboratory, Hôpital J. Ducuing, 15 rue Varsovie, 31300 Toulouse, France.

4Traumatology and Orthopaedic Surgery Department, J. Ducuing Hospital, Toulouse, France.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis and to compare these to the characteristics of PJI due to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

METHODS:

A retrospective multicentre study including all consecutive cases of S. lugdunensis PJI (2000-2014) was performed. Eighty-eight cases of staphylococcal PJI were recorded: 28 due to S. lugdunensis, 30 to S. aureus, and 30 to S. epidermidis, as identified by Vitek 2 or API Staph (bioMérieux).

RESULTS:

Clinical symptoms were more often reported in the S. lugdunensis group, and the median delay between surgery and infection was shorter for the S. lugdunensis group than for the S. aureus and S. epidermidis groups. Regarding antibiotic susceptibility, the S. lugdunensis strains were susceptible to antibiotics and 61% of the patients could be treated with levofloxacin + rifampicin. The outcome of the PJI was favourable for 89% of patients with S. lugdunensis, 83% with S. aureus, and 97% with S. epidermidis.

CONCLUSION:

S. lugdunensis is an emerging pathogen with a pathogenicity quite similar to that of S. aureus. This coagulase-negative Staphylococcus must be identified precisely in PJI, in order to select the appropriate surgical treatment and antibiotics .

PDF

http://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(16)31132-8/pdf

November 18, 2016 at 1:24 pm

Coagulase-negative staphylococci.

Clin Microbiol Rev. October 2014 V.27 N.4 P.:870-926.

Becker K1, Heilmann C2, Peters G2.

Author information

1Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany kbecker@uni-muenster.de.

2Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Abstract

The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic.

Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species.

They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns.

While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis.

In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections.

This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum.

In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4187637/pdf/zcm870.pdf

November 18, 2016 at 1:23 pm

Reduction of nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage in health care professionals by treatment with a nonantibiotic, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic

American Journal of Infection Control August 2014 V.42 N.8 P.841-846

Lisa L. Steed, PhD, Justin Costello, BA, Shivangi Lohia, MD, Taylor Jones, BS, Ernst W. Spannhake, PhD, Shaun Nguyen, MD, MA, CPI

Background

Antibiotics used to reduce nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in patients before admission are inappropriate for carriage reduction on a regular basis within a hospital community. Effective nonantibiotic alternatives for daily use in the nares will allow reduction of this bacterial source to be addressed.

Methods

Our study tested the effectiveness of a nonantibiotic, alcohol-based antiseptic in reducing nasal bacterial carriage in health care professionals (HCPs) at an urban hospital center. HCPs testing positive for vestibular S aureus colonization were treated 3 times during the day with topical antiseptic or control preparations. Nasal S aureus and total bacterial colonization levels were determined before and at the end of a 10-hour workday.

Results

Seventy-eight of 387 HCPs screened (20.2%) tested positive for S aureus infection. Of 39 subjects who tested positive for S aureus infection who completed the study, 20 received antiseptic and 19 received placebo treatment. Antiseptic treatment reduced S aureus colony forming units from baseline by 99% (median) and 82% (mean) (P < .001). Total bacterial colony forming units were reduced by 91% (median) and 71% (mean) (P < .001).

Conclusions

Nasal application of a nonantibiotic, alcohol-based antiseptic was effective in reducing S aureus and total bacterial carriage, suggesting the usefulness of this approach as a safe, effective, and convenient alternative to antibiotic treatment.

PDF

http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(14)00651-8/pdf

November 18, 2016 at 7:55 am


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