REVIEW – Clostridium difficile Infection in Special High-Risk Populations.
Infect Dis Ther. September 2016 V.5 N.3 P.253-69.
Cózar-Llistó A1, Ramos-Martinez A1, Cobo J2.
1Infectious Diseases Unit, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.
2Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, IRYCIS, Carretera de Colmenar Viejo Km 9.1, 28034, Madrid, Spain. email@example.com
Antibiotic use continues to be the most important risk factor for the development of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) through disruption of the indigenous microbiota of the colon.
This factor, together with environmental contamination, makes hospital and other healthcare facilities the perfect breeding ground for the infection.
Several groups of patients are exposed to the hospital environment and, at the same time, affected by conditions that can make CDI more prevalent, more severe or make it present a different clinical picture. The list of such conditions appears too extensive to be reviewed in a single article.
Nevertheless, several groups, including the critically ill, oncological patients, solid organ and hematopoietic transplant recipients, patients with inflammatory bowel disease, patients with kidney disease and pregnant women, have generated more attention and have been studied in more detail.
On the other hand, pediatric patients constitute a controversial group because the large number of asymptomatic carriers makes interpretation of clinical findings and diagnostic tests difficult, as is the development of an appropriate approach to treatment.
We present an in-depth discussion of CDI in these high-risk populations and we also review the issue of CDI in pediatric patients.
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