Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Screening and Decolonization to Reduce Surgical Site Infection in Elective Total Joint Arthroplasty

November 26, 2016 at 11:02 am

Journal of Arthroplasty September 2016 V.31 N.9 P.144–147

Scott M. Sporer, Thea Rogers, Linda Abella

Background

Deep infection after elective total joint arthroplasty remains a devastating complication. Preoperative nasal swab screening for Staphylococcus aureus colonization and subsequent treatment of colonized patients is one proposed method to identify at-risk patients and decrease surgical site infections (SSIs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a preoperative staphylococcus screening and treatment program would decrease the incidence of SSI in elective joint arthroplasty patients.

Methods

Since January 2009, a total of 9690 patients having an elective joint arthroplasty were screened before surgery for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) with nares swabs. All patients with positive nare colonization for MSSA and MRSA were treated with mupirocin and chlorhexidine gluconate showers for 5 days before surgery. MRSA patients received vancomycin preoperatively and were placed in contact isolation. All elective arthroplasty patients used chlorhexidine gluconate antiseptic cloths the evening prior and the day of surgery. Perioperative infection rates were compared from 1 year before implementation to 5 years after implementation of this screening protocol.

Results

SSI rates have decreased from 1.11% (prescreening) to 0.34% (nasal screening; P < .05) after initiation of the process. Staphylococcus was identified in 66.7% of the SSI infections before nasal screening and in 33.3% of the SSI after routine screening (P > .05).

Conclusion

The addition of MRSA and/or MSSA nares screening along with a perioperative decolonization protocol has resulted in a decreased SSI rate by 69%.

abstract

http://www.arthroplastyjournal.org/article/S0883-5403(16)30157-7/fulltext

PDF

http://www.arthroplastyjournal.org/article/S0883-5403(16)30157-7/pdf

Entry filed under: Antimicrobianos, Bacterias, Desinfection and Sterilization, Epidemiología, Health Care-Associated Infections, Infecciones nosocomiales, Infecciones osteo-articulares-musculares, Infecciones relacionadas a prótesis, Metodos diagnosticos, Profilaxis Antibiótica en Cirugía - PAC, Resistencia bacteriana, Sepsis, Update. Tags: .

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