Cost Analysis of Implementing Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Plus Real-Time Antimicrobial Stewardship Intervention for Bloodstream Infections
Journal of Clinical Microbiology January 2017 V.55 N.1 P.60-67
Twisha S. Patel, Rola Kaakeh, Jerod L. Nagel, Duane W. Newton, and James G. Stevenson
aDepartment of Pharmacy Services, University of Michigan Hospitals and Health Centers, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
bDepartment of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
cDepartment of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Studies evaluating rapid diagnostic testing plus stewardship intervention have consistently demonstrated improved clinical outcomes for patients with bloodstream infections.
However, the cost of implementing new rapid diagnostic testing can be significant, and such testing usually does not generate additional revenue.
There are minimal data evaluating the impact of adding matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid organism identification and dedicating pharmacy stewardship personnel time on the total hospital costs.
A cost analysis was performed utilizing patient data generated from the hospital cost accounting system and included additional costs of MALDI-TOF equipment, supplies and personnel, and dedicated pharmacist time for blood culture review and of making interventions to antimicrobial therapy.
The cost analysis was performed from a hospital perspective for 3-month blocks before and after implementation of MALDI-TOF plus stewardship intervention. A total of 480 patients with bloodstream infections were included in the analysis: 247 in the preintervention group and 233 in the intervention group.
Thirty-day mortality was significantly improved in the intervention group (12% versus 21%, P < 0.01), and the mean length of stay was reduced, although the difference was not statistically significant (13.0 ± 16.5 days versus 14.2 ± 16.7 days, P = 0.44).
The total hospital cost per bloodstream infection was lower in the intervention group ($42,580 versus $45,019). Intensive care unit cost per bloodstream infection accounted for the largest share of the total costs in each group and was also lower in the intervention group ($10,833 versus $13,727). Implementing MALDI-TOF plus stewardship review and intervention decreased mortality for patients with bloodstream infections.
Despite the additional costs of implementing MALDI-TOF and of dedicating pharmacy stewardship personnel time to interventions, the total hospital costs decreased by $2,439 per bloodstream infection, for an approximate annual cost savings of $2.34 million….