Archive for February 3, 2017

The potential role of Wolbachia in controlling the transmission of emerging human arboviral infections

Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases February 2017  V.30 N.1 P.108-116

Kamtchum-Tatuene, Joseph; Makepeace, Benjamin L.; Benjamin, Laura

aLiverpool Brain Infections Group

bDepartment of Infection Biology

cDepartment of Epidemiology and Population Health, Institute of Infection and Global Health

dNIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK

Correspondence to Tom Solomon, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, 8 West Derby Street, Liverpool L69 7BE, UK. Tel: +44 0 151 795 9626; e-mail: tsolomon@liverpool.ac.uk

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted between vertebrate hosts and blood-feeding arthropod vectors including mosquitoes, sand flies, biting midges, mites, lice and ticks. With the exception of African swine fever virus, which is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Asfarviridae family, all other arboviruses have an RNA genome and belong to one of the following five families of viruses: Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae and Reoviridae.

The distribution of arboviruses across the globe is largely dependent on the distribution of susceptible vector species, which varies in response to climatic changes.

Their spread is favoured by urbanization, human travel and livestock movements …

FULL TEXT

http://journals.lww.com/co-infectiousdiseases/Fulltext/2017/02000/The_potential_role_of_Wolbachia_in_controlling_the.15.aspx

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February 3, 2017 at 1:35 pm

HIV-associated changes in the enteric microbial community – potential role in loss of homeostasis and development of systemic inflammation

Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases February 2017  V.30 N.1 P.31-43

Gootenberg, David B.; Paer, Jeffrey M.; Luevano, Jesus-Mario

aRagon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge

bHarvard Medical School, Boston

cDivision of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Correspondence to Douglas S. Kwon, MD, PhD, 400 Technology Square, Room 892, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Tel: +1 857 268 7009; e-mail: dkwon@mgh.harvard.edu

The enteric ‘microbiome’ consists of a diverse collection of trillions of Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya, and viruses [1–5], with a large aggregate genome, referred to as the ‘metagenome’, that contributes to normal immune development [6] and a number of pathological processes [7–9].

The host immune system acts as an essential curator for this luminal enteric microbial community, serving to shape and control the structure and function of this diverse collection of organisms [10–12].

HIV infection leads to the widespread destruction of host immune function [13,14], including the rapid and profound depletion of CD4+ T cells within gut-associated lymphoid tissue …..

FULL TEXT

http://journals.lww.com/co-infectiousdiseases/Fulltext/2017/02000/HIV_associated_changes_in_the_enteric_microbial.6.aspx

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February 3, 2017 at 1:33 pm


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