Archive for February 9, 2017

Inter-society consensus for the management of respiratory infections: acute bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Medicina (B Aires). 2013;73(2):163-73.

Article in Spanish

Lopardo G1, Pensotti C, Scapellato P, Caberlotto O, Calmaggi A, Clara L, Klein M, Levy Hara G, López Furst MJ, Mykietiuk A, Pryluka D, Rial MJ, Vujacich C, Yahni D.

Author information

1Sociedad Argentina de Infectología, Argentina.


The Argentine Society for Infectious Diseases and other national societies issued updated practical guidelines for the management of acute bronchitis (AB) and reactivations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with the aim of promoting rational use of diagnostic and therapeutic resources.

AB is a condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchial airways which affects adults and children without underlying pulmonary disease. It is usually caused by a virus.

The diagnosis is based on clinical findings after community acquired pneumonia has been ruled out. Treatment of AB is mainly symptomatic. Antibiotics should be used in immune-compromised hosts, patients with chronic respiratory or cardiac diseases and in the elderly with co-morbidities.

Reactivation of COPD is defined as an acute change in the patient’s baseline clinical situation beyond normal day to day variations, with an increase in dyspnea, sputum production and/or sputum purulence, warranting a change in medication. An increase in one symptom is considered a mild exacerbation, two as moderate, and the presence of three symptoms is considered a severe exacerbation.

An infectious agent can be isolated in sputum in 50 to 75% of COPD reactivations. Moderate and severe episodes must be treated with antibiotics, amoxicillin/ beta-lactamase inhibitor, macrolides and fluoroquinolones are first choice drugs.



February 9, 2017 at 2:53 pm

CMV infection complicating the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease in an immunocompetent patient.

BMJ Case Rep. 2012 May 8;2012. pii: bcr1120115254. doi: 10.1136/bcr.11.2011.5254.

Shahani L1.

1Department of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois, USA.


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) affects the gastrointestinal tract commonly; however CMV colitis is uncommon in patients who are not severely immunocompromised.

The author reports a 51-year-old Caucasian female who was admitted to the hospital with exacerbation of her chronic diarrhoea. CAT scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed thickening of the wall of the terminal ileum with inflammatory stranding and follow-up colonoscopy showed extensive circumferential ulceration in the terminal ileum.

Biopsies confirmed diagnosis of CMV infection and the patient was started on appropriate antimicrobial agents. CMV viremia showed response to the medication; however the patient’s intestinal symptoms failed to improve.

Nodular lesions consistent with erythema nodusum were noticed and promethus test was consistent with Crohn’s disease.

The patient showed good response to immunosuppressive therapy. CMV infections are known to exacerbate symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease and hence Crohn’s disease should be suspected in an immunocompetent patient presenting with CMV ileitis.


February 9, 2017 at 2:51 pm

Clinical significance of cytomegalovirus infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Jan 7;19(1):17-25.

Garrido E1, Carrera E, Manzano R, Lopez-Sanroman A.

Author information

1Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic, Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain.


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common in humans. The virus then enters a “latency phase” and can reactivate to different stimuli such as immunosuppression. The clinical significance of CMV infection in inflammatory bowel disease is different in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).

CMV does not interfere in the clinical course of CD. However, CMV reactivation is frequent in severe or steroid-resistant UC. It is not known whether the virus exacerbates the disease or simply appears as a bystander of a severe disease. Different methods are used to diagnose CMV colitis.

Diagnosis is classically based on histopathological identification of viral-infected cells or CMV antigens in biopsied tissues using haematoxylin-eosin or immunohistochemistry, other tests on blood or tissue samples are currently being investigated.

Polymerase chain reaction performed in colonic mucosa has a high sensitivity and a positive result could be associated with a worse prognosis disease; further studies are needed to determine the most appropriate strategy with positive CMV-DNA in colonic mucosa. Specific endoscopic features have not been described in active UC and CMV infection.

CMV colitis is usually treated with ganciclovir for several weeks, there are different opinions about whether or not to stop immunosuppressive therapy. Other antiviral drugs may be used. Multicenter controlled studies would needed to determine which subgroup of UC patients would benefit from early antiviral treatment.


February 9, 2017 at 2:49 pm

Cytomegalovirus infection in inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with worsening of intestinal inflammatory activity.

PLoS One. 2014 Nov 11;9(11):e111574.

do Carmo AM1, Santos FM1, Ortiz-Agostinho CL1, Nishitokukado I1, Frota CS1, Gomes FU1, Leite AZ1, Pannuti CS2, Boas LS3, Teixeira MG4, Sipahi AM1.

Author information

1Departamento de Gastroenterologia, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo – LIM 07, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

2Instituto de Medicina Tropical e Departamento de Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitarias (LIM-HC) da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

3Instituto de Medicina Tropical e Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina (LIM-HC), Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

4Departamento de Cirurgia do Serviço de Cirurgia do Cólon Reto e Ânus, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Erratum in

Correction: Cytomegalovirus Infection in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Is Not Associated with Worsening of Intestinal Inflammatory Activity. [PLoS One. 2015]



Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent virus and usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. The pathophysiology and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease often induce a state of immunosuppression. Because this, there are still doubts and controversies about the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and cytomegalovirus.


Evaluate the frequency of cytomegalovirus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and identify correlations.


Patients with inflammatory bowel disease underwent an interview, review of records and collection of blood and fecal samples. The search for cytomegalovirus was performed by IgG and IgM blood serology, by real-time PCR in the blood and by qualitative PCR in feces. Results were correlated with red blood cell levels, C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and fecal calprotectin levels for each patient.


Among the 400 eligible patients, 249 had Crohn’s disease, and 151 had ulcerative colitis. In the group of Crohn’s disease, 67 of the patients had moderate or severe disease, but 126 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. In patients with ulcerative colitis, only 21 patients had moderate disease, but 76 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. A large majority of patients had positive CMV IgG. Overall, 10 patients had positive CMV IgM, and 9 patients had a positive qualitative detection of CMV DNA by PCR in the feces. All 400 patients returned negative results after the quantitative detection of CMV DNA in blood by real-time PCR. Analyzing the 19 patients with active infections, we only found that such an association occurred with the use of combined therapy (anti-TNF-alpha + azathioprine).


The findings show that latent cytomegalovirus infections are frequent and active cytomegalovirus infection is rare. We did not find any association between an active infection of CMV and inflammatory bowel disease activity



February 9, 2017 at 2:47 pm

Cytomegalovirus colitis with common variable immunodeficiency and Crohn’s disease.

Case Rep Med. 2015;2015:348204.

Ünal B1, Başsorgun Cİ1, Çil Gönülcü S1, Uçar A1, Çelik F1, Elpek GÖ1.

Author information

1Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Turkey.


Here we present an eleven-year-old male patient who had been diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) three years ago due to recurrent sinopulmonary infections. Two years later he had been diagnosed with Crohn’s disease (CD) due to diarrhea episodes which were unresponsive to the treatment.

Depending on the active gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation he underwent total colectomy. Despite immunoglobulin and antiviral therapies, general condition of patient deteriorated and he died in the postoperative seventh day.

Laboratory analysis was seronegative. CMV inclusion containing cells were detected in postmortem biopsies taken from liver, lungs, and lymph nodes.


February 9, 2017 at 2:45 pm

West Nile Virus: Biology, Transmission, and Human Infection

Clin. Microbiol. Rev. October 2012 25(4): 635-648

Tonya M. Colpitts, Michael J. Conway, Ruth R. Montgomery, and Erol Fikrig

aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases

bSection of Rheumatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

cHoward Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, USA

West Nile Virus was introduced into the Western Hemisphere during the late summer of 1999 and has been causing significant and sometimes severe human diseases since that time.

This article briefly touches upon the biology of the virus and provides a comprehensive review regarding recent discoveries about virus transmission, virus acquisition, and human infection and disease.


February 9, 2017 at 2:43 pm


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