Archive for June 30, 2017

The role of biomarkers in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection.

EFORT Open Rev. 2017 Mar 13;1(7):275-278.

Shahi A1, Parvizi J1.

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1 The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, USA.


The role of serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as the first line for evaluating a patient with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) has been debunked.We are living in the era of biomarkers for the diagnosis of PJI, and to that effect, several biomarkers have been introduced such as synovial fluid alpha defensin and leukocyte esterase.The synovial fluid leukocyte esterase test has a low cost, is accessible, and has provided promising results for diagnosing PJI.There is an urgent need for an accurate and reliable serum biomarker for diagnosing patients with PJI. Cite this article: Shahi A, Parvizi J. The role of biomarkers in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection.



June 30, 2017 at 12:01 pm

Management of Resistant, Atypical and Culture-negative Periprosthetic Joint Infections after Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

Open Orthop J. 2016 Nov 30;10:615-632.

McLawhorn AS1, Nawabi DH1, Ranawat AS1.

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1 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70 Street, New York, NY 10021, USA.



Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication following lower extremity total joint arthroplasty (TJA). It is a leading cause of morbidity and revision following TJA. As such, PJI is a significant driver of healthcare costs. The prevalence of PJI related to resistant and atypical organisms is increasing, and approximately 10-30% of PJIs are culture-negative. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of PJI associated with resistant and atypical pathogens and of culture-negative PJIs.


The published literature related to the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of atypical, drug-resistant, and culture-negative PJI is reviewed.


The clinical diagnosis of PJI is often challenging, particularly when pathogens are fastidious or when antibiotics have been administered empirically. Molecular diagnostic studies, such as synovial α-defensin, may provide rapid, accurate identification of PJI, even in the setting of concurrent antibiotics administration or systemic inflammatory disease. Once PJI is diagnosed, two-stage exchange arthroplasty remains the gold standard for treating PJI with resistant microorganisms, since there is a high rate of treatment failure with irrigation and debridement and with one-stage exchange arthroplasty.


Additional research is needed to define the optimal treatment of PJIs associated with rare pathogens, such as fungi and mycobacteria. There is a need for inexpensive, reliable tests that rapidly detect specific microbial species and antimicrobial susceptibilities. Additional research is also required to define the specific organisms, clinical scenarios, surgical techniques, and antimicrobial regimens that allow for reproducible treatment success with prosthetic retention strategies.


June 30, 2017 at 11:59 am

Efficacy of Antibiotic Suppressive Therapy in Patients with a Prosthetic Joint Infection.

J Bone Jt Infect. 2017 Jan 15;2(2):77-83.

Wouthuyzen-Bakker M1, Nijman JM1, Kampinga GA2, van Assen S1, Jutte PC3.

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1 Department of Internal Medicine/Infectious diseases.

2 Department of Medical Microbiology.

3 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands.


Introduction: For chronic prosthetic joint infections (PJI), complete removal of the infected prosthesis is necessary in order to cure the infection. Unfortunately, a subgroup of patients is not able to undergo a revision surgery due to high surgical risk. Alternatively, these patients can be treated with antibiotic suppressive therapy (AST) to suppress the infection. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of AST. Methods: We retrospectively collected data (period 2009-2015) from patients with a PJI (of hip, knee or shoulder) who were treated with AST at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. AST was defined as antibiotic treatment for PJI that was started after the usual 3 months of antibiotic treatment. The time of follow-up was defined from the time point AST was started. Treatment was considered as failed, when the patient still experienced joint pain, when surgical intervention (debridement, removal, arthrodesis or amputation) was needed to control the infection and/or when death occurred due to the infection. Results: We included 21 patients with a median age of 67 years (range 21 – 88) and with a median follow-up of 21 months (range 3 – 81). Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (n=6), S. aureus (n=6) and polymicrobial flora (n=4) were the most frequently found causative pathogens. Most patients with CNS and S. aureus were treated with minocycline (67%) and clindamycin (83%) as AST, respectively. Overall, treatment was successful in 67% of patients. Failure was due to persistent joint pain (n=1), surgical intervention because of an uncontrolled infection (n=3), and death due the infection (n=3). We observed a treatment success of 90% in patients with a ‘standard’ prosthesis (n=11), compared to only 50% in patients with a tumor-prosthesis (n=10). Also, treatment was successful in 83% of patients with a CNS as causative microorganism for the infection, compared to 50% in patients with a S. aureus. Patients who failed on AST had a higher ESR in comparison to patients with a successful treatment (mean 73 ± 25SD versus 32 ± 19SD mm/hour (p = 0.007), respectively. 43% of patients experienced side effects and led to a switch of antibiotic treatment or a dose adjustment in almost all of these patients. Conclusions: Removal of the implant remains first choice in patients with chronic PJI. However, AST is a reasonable alternative treatment option in a subgroup of patients with a PJI who are no candidate for revision surgery, in particular in patients with a ‘standard’ prosthesis and/or CNS as the causative micro-organism.



June 30, 2017 at 11:55 am


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